PSYCH 1010 TEST 4
VIDEO #23 NOTES
- How can biofeedback lower our pulse?
- Relationship between activity of mind and body.
- Human mind influences susceptibility and resistance to disease.
- The biomedical model so is now enjoyed by biopsychosocial model.
- Treat body and whole person in their social context
- Each individual is seen as human system in which mental and physical processes
constantly interact and affect each other.
placing great importance on harmony of mind and body.
- Hozho (Navajo concept): Beauty, peace of mind, and goodness and health are
- Natural world, beauty in arts, and even family relationships strive to achieve harmony.
- In Navajo world, illness is result of disharmony.
- Tribal ceremonies seek to restore health and banish illness. Family members work
together with sick person to achieve hozho.
- No implication that individual is responsible for illness.
- Health psychology researchers are studying the reasons people become ill, ways they
respond when ill and ways they maintain their health.
- It’s now believed there are 4 ways psychology and medical problems are related:
- 1. Organic malfunctioning or tissue damaging may be psychogenic so illness is caused by
psychological state of depression like peptic ulcers caused by excessive anxiety (like
- 2. In 2 category of mind-body ailments are the complaints which patients bring to
physicians that have no apparent organic basis like headaches and weakness. These are
physical symptoms of underlying sources of tension and personal problems. Solve
problem, symptoms gone.
- 3. Psychological factors can work indirectly by weakening or strengtheningour resistance
to disease. Can affect impact of disease agents on body by suppressing or supporting the
body’s immune system.
- 4. Psychological factors cause unhealthful behavior patterns which causes illness.
- By studying mind-body relationships. Can improve health and well-being.
- Subtle psychological factors bring about significant physiological changes(Judith Rodin of
- People may experience some kind of decline with aging but it’s not inevitable or same
with every person.
- In nursing home gave them increase sense of control and power over environment and
measured health condition and death outcome and those with more control did better in
physical health and fewer death. - What is the mechanism by which it occurs?
- Focus on immune system (organs and cells). If fails can get allergies and terminal cancer.
- To fend of antigens there is external defense like skin and mucus membrane coated with
antibodies. If antigen makes it past it has to deal with WBC, T cell and B cell.
- Through brain, psychological factors affect these.
- There is brain (influence) and immune system connection.
- Hard wiring: there are nerve connections between various regions in brain and
lymphocytes and other organs in immune system so there could be cross talk through
- Second way is wet connections: endocrine system. Receptors for various hormones are
on lymphocytes in immune system.
- Human fertility is where the impact of the above is here.
- Stress of IVF cause immune responses making woman less likely to accept fertilized egg.
- Psychological variables effect on major biological outcomes.
- Cause rejection of fertilized egg, not cause infertility.
- Biofeedback: Most responses of internal organs are not perceived very well so
biofeedback by measuring instruments supplies information on what is happening.
- Animals could be trained to change functioning of some of their internal organs.
- Basic research guided by how facts of nature fit together to explain how nature works is
important to lead to progress because knowing how it works helps fix it.
disturb its equilibrium, attacks its ability to cope or exceed ability to cope.
- Thesedisturbingeventsare stressorspartofphysical environmentlikedisease orbefrom
social environment like loss of a loved one, or life’s little hassles like being late.
- Stress is not just external events, we can be our own source of stress like being rigid and
demanding of self and self-critical.
- Change from ordinary is a source of stress.
- Include primarily negative events like illness and failure or positive ones like sudden
success or marriage. Reason is that change is adjustment to new circumstances in an
attempt to restore equilibrium.
- Greater the change, greater the adjustment to make.
- As stress accumulates, chances of getting seriously ill in next few years increases. The
correlation of these is well documented.
- Nonspecific stress as Hans Selye said who studied stressors threatening physical
functioning of animals. Discovered general reaction to stress that was not tied to
particular nature of the stressor. He called it the general adaptation syndrome and
characterized by 3 stages:
- 1. Alarm reaction stimulates pituitary and adrenal glands to release hormones that
mobilize the body’s defenses.