PSYC 1010- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 218 pages long!)

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30 Nov 2017
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York
PSYC 1010
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Thursday September 7, 2017
A) Formal Definition of Psychology
B) The Empirical Method
C) Careers in Psychology
1) Formal definition
a. Psychology
i. Scientific study of behaviour and its causes
- Psychologists study
o How you act (behaviour/overt) observable
o How you think (mental/covert) not observable
o How you feel (covert + overt)
o How your brain + body respond (physiological/covert)
- Psychologists apply accumulated body of knowledge to real world problems
o Accidental overdoses
o SSRI’s prescriptions
2) The Empirical Method
a. Measure and describe behaviour
b. Understand and explain behaviour scientifically
i. Rigorous research designs
c. Empirical Evaluation
i. Test predictions using quantitative approaches
ii. Statistics
B) Are your effects statistically significant?
C) What is the likelihood they are happening by chance online?
3) Careers in Psychology
a. Professional Practice:
i. Clinical/Counseling
B) Clinical Psychologists
C) Psychiatrists, Psychoanalysts
ii. Educational/School Psychology
iii. Industrial/Organizational
b. Research/Academia:
i. Developmental
ii. Social
iii. Experimental
iv. Physiological
v. Cognitive
vi. Personality
vii. Psychometrics
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viii. Abnormal/Clinical
ix. Health
Tuesday September 12, 2017
1. Theoretical Perspectives
a. Biological:
i. How physiology affects thoughts and behaviour
b. Cognitive
i. How your mind (conscious thoughts) influence behaviour
c. Psychodynamic
i. How the unconscious influences behaviour
d. Behavioural
i. How the environment shapes behaviour
e. Humanistic
i. Freedom of choice and actualization of the self as determinants of
behaviour
f. Evolutionary
i. How the behaviour initially solved an adaptive problem and increased
chance of reproductive success
g. Positive Psychology:
i. Psychologists should research what helps us flourish and thrive; core to
our health. Catalog virtues and how they need to be integrated in our lives.
ii. + Distance interventions
2. Perspectives Applied
a. How can we explain depression?
i. Biological Vulnerability:
1. Genetic vulnerability
2. Neurochemical imbalance in the brain
ii. Cognitive Vulnerability:
1. Attribution bias
2. Dysfunctional beliefs
iii. Psychoanalytic View:
1. Unresolved grief over early loss
2. Overly harsh superego
3. Theoretical Perspectives on Depression
a. Humanistic View:
i. Loss of meaning and purpose
ii. Failure to actualize yourself
b. Behavioural View:
i. Lowered social support
ii. Loss of rewards
c. Evolutionary View:
i. Involuntary subordination
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