Midterm 1 It's the new psychology textbook!

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16 Oct 2011

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Structuralism early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural
elements of the human kind
Functionalism a school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioural
processes how they enable us to adapt, survive and flourish
Humanistic Psychology the growth potential of healthy people and the individual’s potential
for personal growth
Cognitive Neuroscience interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition
Levels of Analysis differing complementary views from biological to psychological to social-
Biopsychosocial Approach integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological
and social-cultural levels of analysis
Basic Research science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
Applied Research scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
Counselling Psychology a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living
and achieving greater well-being
Clinical Psychology a branch of psychology that studies, assesses and treats people with
psychological disorders
Psychiatry a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; prescribing drugs
SQ3R survey, question, read, rehearse, and review
Chapter 1
Hindsight Bias tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it
(I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon)
Critical Thinking thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. It
examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluated evidence and assesses conclusions.
Hypotheses a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
Theory an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and
predicts behaviours or events
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Operational Definition a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research
Replication repeating the research study
Case Study an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of
revealing principles
Survey questioning representative, random sample of the group to obtain information
Population all the cases in a group being studied where samples where drawn
Random Sample a sample that represents a population each member has an equal chance of
Inclusion mental process
Correlation a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together and thus of how well
either factor predicts the other
Correlation Coefficient a statistical index of the relationship between two things (from -1 to
Illusory Correlation the perception of a relationship where none exists
Random Assignment assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance
Single-blind where the experimenter knows the control group and experimental group
Double-blind both the experimenter and the client does not know which group they are placed
Placebo Effect it reduces pain, anxiety and they are sugar pills which are given to clients to
make them believe that they’re actually on medications or treatments
Experimental Group group that is exposed to treatment
Control Group group that is not exposed to treatment
Mode most frequent occurring score
Mean arithmetic average, by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores
Median the middle score
Range the difference between the highest and lowest scores
Standard Deviation a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
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Inferential Statistics take the sample of the population, then you do some kind of
measurement then you make the inference back to the people
Stratafied certain characters may be important, so you focus on the specific group of people
Statistical Significance a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result
occurred by chance
When is an Observed Difference Reliable?
1) Representative samples are better than biased samples. Research never randomly samples the
whole human population. It pays to keep in mind what population a study has sampled
2) Less-variable observations are more reliable than those that are more variable. An average is
more reliable when it comes from scores with low variability.
3) More cases are better than fewer. Use a larger sample size than small sample size to assist
your experiment
Naturalistic Observation scientists observe their participants without being bias or effecting
their environment
Informed Consent to know the study before participating the research, all research has to pass
the ethical issues of the research
Observation Studies describe how people interact without disrupting their behaviours
Independent Variable the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is
being studied
Dependent Variable the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to
manipulations of the independent variable
Between-Subject Comparison randomly assigned groups see if the cause affects the variables
Controls Individual Variable/Within-Subject Comparison some subjects are testes
repeatedly, inter-mix the subjects
Confounding the experimenter wants to manipulate the independent variable try not to have
Measurements the psychology sign is based on measuring something
Imprecision measurement is not precise; anxiety measurement can be measured on a scaled
but it may not be precise
Lack of Reliability consistency of measurement; making sure it does not duplicate
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