PSYC 1010 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Contiguity, Reinforcement, Behaviorism

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Published on 16 Oct 2011
School
York University
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1010
Professor
LECTURE: OCTOBER 20, 2010
Test 2: Chapter 6 Learning
BEHAVIORAL APPROACH:
This approach is interested in looking at overt (observable) behavior and determining their antecedents
(history, background) and consequences.
LEARNING: a relatively durable change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience or practice.
Learning vs. Performance
LECTURE: OCTOBER 27, 2010
TYPES OF LEARNING (CONDITIONING):
1. Classical Conditioning (Pavlov)
2. Operant or Instrumental (Skinner)
3. Observational
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING (PAVLOV)
A. Unconditioned Response (UR)
It is an R (response) that is automatic or reflexive and that requires no prior learning.
It is involuntary
Examples: blinking when something gets in your eye, dog salivating when it smells food
B. Unconditioned Stimulus (US)
o A stimulus that precedes and elicits (triggers) the UR (unconditional response)
C. Conditioned Response (CR)
o The response elicited by a CS, identical to the UR
D. Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
o Any stimulus that is paired with the US and eventually elicits a CR
In Pavlov’s experiment, he noticed that when his dog saw food, he would begin salivating. In the
background, a bell was ringing while the dog saw the food, causing the dog to make the association
between the bell and the food. Therefore, when the dog heard the bell, he would begin salivating.
What is the UR? Salivating
What is it that naturally triggers the Salivation response (US)? Food elicits or triggers salivation
Unconditioned Stimulus→
Unconditioned Response
Association
Conditioned Stimulus →
Conditioned Response
(US) Food → (UR) Salivation
Bell + Food
(CS) Bell → (CR) Salivation
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Example 2: let’s say you had an uncle who, when he says, “hello” to you, he also gives you a big hard
slap on the back. In the future, you may want to flinch each time your uncle says “hello” because you
have made an association between the “hello” and the slap.
Unconditioned Stimulus→
Unconditioned Response
Association
Conditioned Stimulus →
Conditioned Response
(US) Slap → (UR) Flinch
“Hello” + Slap
(CS) “hello” →(CR) Flinch
If you want classical conditioning to occur there are a few different methods to execute this. Most
methods are questionable or unsuccessful, but delay conditioning is the most reliable:
A. Delay Conditioning: Present the US and then the CS. Example: Ring the bell and while bell is
ringing for a couple of seconds, present the food. This method is the most effective.
B. Simultaneous conditioning: Presenting the US and the CS at the same time. This would be
presenting the food and ringing the bell at the same time.
C. Trace Conditioning: Is when one rings the bell and then stops ringing it. Then the food is
presented a few moments later. Take the food away. There is no overlap between the bell
(CS) and the food (US).
D. Backward conditioning: Food is presented first and then the bell is rung bell. This method is
the least effective.
Watson (a behaviorist): Watson wanted to see if he would be able to inflict a phobia in his child
through classical conditioning. He began by giving his child a small white mouse to play with, and the
child exhibited no signs of fear. Following that, he then got another person to hit a gong really loud
to startle the child. After that, when the child saw the mouse, he began to exhibit signs of fear.
Unconditioned Stimulus→
Unconditioned Response
Association
Conditioned Stimulus →
Conditioned Response
(US) gong → (UR) fear
Mouse + gong
(CS) mouse→(CR) fear
Higher-Order Conditioning
o When a well-established conditioned stimulus (CS1) stats acting as though it were an
unconditioned stimulus (US) and is able to bring the CR under the control of a CS2.
Unconditioned
Stimulus→
Unconditioned
Response
Association
Conditioned Stimulus
→ Conditioned
Response
Another
Association
2nd or Higher
Order
Condition
Stimulus
(US) Food → (UR)
Salivation
Bell + Food
(CS) Bell → (CR)
Salivation
Light + Bell
Light
Salivation
Bell = CS1
Light = CS2
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Example Two: Using Watson’s experiment:
Unconditioned
Stimulus→
Unconditioned
Response
Association
Conditioned Stimulus
→ Conditioned
Response
Another
Association
2nd or Higher
Order
Condition
Stimulus
(US) gong→ (UR) fear
Mouse + Gong
(CS)Mouse
(CR)Fear
Highchair +
Mouse
Highchair
Fear
Mouse = CS1
Highchair = CS2
Stimulus Generalization:
A Stimulus Generalization is when a conditioned response occurs in response to other stimuli that are
similar to the original conditional stimulus used in training. The greater the similarity, the more likely the
generalization occurs.
Example: If a dog associated a high pitch whistle with food, he may respond to this conditioned stimulus
by salivating at the sound of the whistle. If the dog heard the whistle again but at a slightly lower pitch,
he may still respond the same way because it is very similar. If the pitch was a lot lower however, the
dog may not respond at all.
Stimulus Discrimination:
Is when a conditioned response is elicited only in response to a conditioned stimulus that was paired
with the unconditioned stimulus.
Example: If a dog associated a high pitch whistle with food, he may respond to this conditioned stimulus
by salivating at the sound of the whistle. In Stimulus Discrimination, the dog will not respond to any
other pitch of the whistle, even if it is similar.
Extinction:
Occurs when the conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus over time
and the conditioned stimulus will elicit a conditioned response that gradually weakens and finally
disappears.
Example: After the dog has made the association, you can remove the association by presenting the
whistle without the food. After time, the dog may no longer salivate when he hears the whistle.
LECTURE: NOVEMBER 10, 2010
SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY:
A spontaneous recovery is the reappearance of an extinguished conditioned response when exposed to
the conditioned stimulus, after a period of non-exposure to the conditioned stimulus.
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Document Summary

This approach is interested in looking at overt (observable) behavior and determining their antecedents (history, background) and consequences. Learning: a relatively durable change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience or practice. Types of learning (conditioning): classical conditioning (pavlov, operant or instrumental (skinner, observational. It is an r (response) that is automatic or reflexive and that requires no prior learning. In pavlov"s experiment, he noticed that when his dog saw food, he would begin salivating. In the background, a bell was ringing while the dog saw the food, causing the dog to make the association between the bell and the food. Therefore, when the dog heard the bell, he would begin salivating. Example 2: let"s say you had an uncle who, when he says, hello to you, he also gives you a big hard slap on the back.