PSYC 1010- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 238 pages long!)

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Published on 29 Mar 2018
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PSYC 1010
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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PSYC 1010: Module 1 What is Psychology?
Prologue Overview
● What Is Psychology?
○ Psychological science is born
○ Psychological science develops
○ Contemporary psychology
○ Psychology’s three main levels of analysis
○ Psychology’s subfields
○ Best learning practices: Improve your retention-and your grades!
Psychological Science Is Born
● First laboratory
○ Fourth century B.C.E.: Aristotle used observation and questioning to
understand the body-psyche relationship
○ Questions were answered through observation (and guesses)
Psychological Science Is Born
● Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)
○ Defined psychology as “science of mental life”
○ Added two key elements to enhance scientific nature of psychology
○ Elements included carefully measured observations and experiments
● Structuralism: Titchener
○ Mentored by Wundt
○ Relied on “self-report” data
○ Encouraged introspection, reporting on sensations and other elements of
experience in reaction to stimuli
○ Used these introspective reports to build a view of the mind’s structure
● Functionalism: William James (1842-1910)
○ Studied human thoughts, feelings, and behaviors and asked:
○ What function might they serve?
○ How might they have helped our ancestors survive?
○ Authored Principles of Psychology
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First Women in Psychology
● Mary Whiton Calkins (1863-1930)
○ Became memory researcher and first APA female president
○ Studied with James but discriminated against and denied PhD
● Margaret Floy Washburn (1871-1939)
○ Became second APA female president
○ Wrote The Animal Mind
○ Studied with Titchener
○ Barred from his experimental psychology organization
Psychological Science Develops: Behaviorism
Behaviorism
○ Defined psychology as “scientific study of observable behavior” without
reference to mental processes
○ Became major force in psychology into 1960s
Proponents
○ John B. Watson (Classical conditioning) and B.F. Skinner (Operant
conditioning) dismissed introspection
○ Watson and Rayner conduced famous “Little Albert” experiments
Psychological Science Develops
● Freudian Psychology
○ Emphasized ways unconscious thought processes and emotional
responses to childhood experiences affect later behavior
○ Was second major force until 1960s
● Humanistic Psychology
○ Revived interest in study of mental processes
○ Focused on ways current environments nurture or limit growth potential
and importance of having need for love and acceptance satisfied
○ Led by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow
● Cognitive revolution occurred in 1960.
● Focus returned to interest in mental processes.
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Document Summary

Best learning practices: improve your retention-and your grades! Questions were answered through observation (and guesses) understand the body-psyche relationship. Defined psychology as science of mental life . Added two key elements to enhance scientific nature of psychology. Elements included carefully measured observations and experiments. Defined psychology as scientific study of observable behavior without. Became major force in psychology into 1960s reference to mental processes. Watson and rayner conduced famous little albert experiments conditioning) dismissed introspection. Was second major force until 1960s responses to childhood experiences affect later behavior. Revived interest in study of mental processes. Focused on ways current environments nurture or limit growth potential. Focus returned to interest in mental processes. Cognitive psychology scientifically explored ways in which information is perceived, processed, and remembered. The interdisciplinary field of cognitive neuroscience ties the science of mind (cognitive psychology) and the science of the brain (neuroscience) and focuses on brain activity underlying mental activity.

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