Motivation, Emotion theories and Intelligence Maslows heirarchy of needs and its relation to motivation. Theories of how emotion works, and introduction to intelligence testing.
Jan 27, 2011 lecture PSYCH1010 A.E.
Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
*inborn needs that are organized in a hierarchy*
**Deficiency Motives: we are motivated to remove a deficiency/discomfort
**Growth Motives: even when there is no deficiency we are motivated to develop beyond our present
Deficiency motives: esteem, belongingness, safety, physiological
Growth motives: cognitive, aesthetic needs, need for self-actualization
Characteristics of self-actualized people: tolerate uncertainty, humour, highly creative, concerned for
welfare of humanity
MOTIVATION: different concept but related to motivation
3 components of emotion
A) Facial expression- body language, voice intonation (behavioural components)
B) Physiological changes – blood pressure, heart rate, upset stomach
C) Cognitive – feeling/experiencing, mood
*Ekman – found that 1000 different configurations of facial expressions that can convey emotion.
*these are innate: these expressions happen cross-culturally, blind people express the
same facial expression for a specific emotion.
As a rebuttal to Ekman, another thought about facial expression implies that it facial expressions are
learned through the culture’s expression of feelings. E.g; Tibet – hello with “clicking tongue”, some
cultures teach to control emotion (Japanese hide negative emotion in public)
Pure and Mixed Emotions
Pure emotions: are innate, easily identifiable--- happiness, surprise, disgust, sadness, fear, anger
Mixed emotions: expressed differently, idiosyncratic, combinations of primary emotions:
Desire, jealousy, pride, love, disappointment, relief
THEORIES OF EMOTION
(how emotion happens)
Commonsense (general opinion of regular people):
Stimulusemotionautonomic arousal (physiological change in the body)
“I tremble because I am afraid”
James-Lange: different arousing situations will trigger a different set or pattern of autonomic arousal.
This in turn leads to the experience of different emotions.
Stimulusautonomic arousal conscious feeling
Dog experienced feeling labelled emotion – “fear”
Cannon –Baird: no set patterns of arousal – is a general physiological reaction.
StimulusBrain(likely thalamus) physiological arousal (general)
Emotional experience(conscious feeling)
Stimulus general arousalCognitive appraisalemotion
This takes environment into consideration. Environmental cues.
FACIAL FEEDBACK HYPOTHESIS
This hypothesis asserts that the brain picks up what muscles are activated so it gets feedback from the
facial expression and makes you feel the emotion. Support for this theory is that people with Botox
treatment report to feel less intense emotion.
CHAPTER 9 – TESTING AND INTELLIGENCE
Test is February 17, 2011
Is a standardized measure of a sample of behaviour, everyone gets the same test, administered
at the same time and uses the same scoring system.
Assumes the sample is characteristic of regular/typical behaviour
2 types of Psychological tests:
Personality tests ( attitudes, interests, motives)
Mental abilities tests :
1) Intelligence tests – assess intellectual potential.
2) Aptitude tests – also measures potential but the assess specific types of mental abilities
3) Achievement tests – measures previous learning on a given topic.
*The term intelligence is a concept
Definitions of intelligence:
The capacity to act purposefully to think rationally and to deal effectively with the environment.
History of Intelligence testing (I.Q. tests)
I.Q was reflected in superior sensory acuity and physical attributes. This didn’t involve any mental
I.Q. reflected in mental abilities ( reasoning, memory, imagination)
Government asked Binet to develop a test to distinguish mentally challenged kids from normal kids
Developed a chronological age and actual age as a part of I.Q. testing
Mental age: A child’s performance on a test expressed in years compared to typical performance @
I.Q. formula ( mental age divided by chronological age x100)
If mental age=chronological age : average intelligence 7/5x100= IQ 140 and 12/10x100=IQ120
If MA>CA then above average intelligence
If MA<CA then below average intelligence In the above there is a large 20 pt. Difference but
Theoretically the scores should be the same.
As person ages, formula yields lower score
Wechsler devised a method to solve the problem in the above IQ formula
Wechslers Deviation IQ Score
*Compares a person’s score to others in the same age group
*Average performance for a given age group is set at 100 then you see how far a person’s score
deviates from the average score
*these deviation scores allow you to determine where you fall in the normal distribution
Raw Scoredeviation scoresPercentile scores