Notes on Chapter 10 These notes are taken from the text book "Psychology Themes and Variations". I will provide the notes for chapter 10 Motivation and Emotion. This can be useful for the midterm.

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16 Oct 2011

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Chapter 10 Dec 14/2010
Motivation and Emotion
Motivational Theories
Motives: needs, wants, interests and desires that involve goal-directed behaviour
- Clark Hull homeostasis the drive theory
1. Drive theory: state of tension that motivates an organism to try and reduce this tension through
certain activities.
Eg. Drive reduction: hungrynot a stable state eat restore physiological
Cannot describe every motivation
Internal state push people in certain direction
Biological factors of motivation
Source of motivation is within the organism
2. Incentive theory: external goal that has the capacity to motivate behaviour
Some may reduce drive/some do not
Environmental factors of motivation
Source of motivation runs outside the organism
Expectancy value chance of gaining incentive + the desired incentive
- May also exist without drive arousal (eg. See ice cream= go buy ice cream)
3. Evolutionary Theory:
Natural selection favours behaviour that maximizes reproductive success (eg.
Dominance, aggression, affiliation)
2 types of human motives
1. Biological: hunger, thirst, sex, temperature, sleep, aggression, activity(arousal)
2. Social: achievement, affiliation, autonomy(independence), nurture, dominance, order, play,
Examples of Types of motivation
1. Motivation of Hunger and Eating
What causes hunger?
Biological factors: 1) role of the brain, 2) blood sugar level (digestion regulations), 3) hormones
Brain regulations
Lateral hypothalamus: hunger removed
Ventromedial nucleus of hypothalamus: hunger never left
Blood sugar level (digestion regulations)
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Hunger is regulated by the rise and fall of blood glucose( simple sugar that is an
important source of energy) levels
Low blood sugar= hungry
High blood sugar= satisfied
Glucostatic theory: blood glucose fluctuates are regulated by glucostats, they are
neurons that are sensitive to glucose
During digestion the stomach sends neurons to the brain to stop the intake of food
when it begins to stretch
Secretion of insulin from the pancreas is associated with increased hunger
Must be present so the cells can extract
Inadequate supply causes diabetes
Leptin ( produced by fat cells) provides information to the hypothalamus about body’s
fat stores.
If high= hunger diminishes
If low= hunger replenishes.
Environmental factors: 1) availability of food 2) learned preferences and habits 3) stress
Availability of food
People eat not because they need to compensate but because of the pleasure of eating
Sensory specific satiety: less food= appeal decline quickly, more food= big appeal=
overeating (Eg. Buffets)
Hunger can also increase by being exposed to pictures, smells and descriptions of foods
Being around others can also cause food decline or food intake (social cues)
Learned preferences and habits
Different cultures and regions have different delicacies and food preferences
Some preferences are general such as: sweet (present at birth), salty (4 months)
Conditioning can happen also with food (Eg. Hockey game=hot dog)
Stress= elongation for something comforting=sweets=go to grocery story=pig out=
mood elevation for a short time
Eating and Obesity
Obesity: condition of being overweight
This is determined by one’s body mass index: individual’s weight, divided by height.
Obesity leads to lowered life expectancy: (7.1yrs. females), (5.8yrs. males)
Causes lots of health problems:
cardiovascular diseases
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