Chapter 1: The Evolution of Psychology
Psychology: science that studies behaviour and the physiological and cognitive processes that
underlie it, and it is the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to
Mind: motives and other subjective experiences
Science: An objective way to answer questions
-Based on observable facts/ data and well described methods
-psyche: Greek for soul, spirit or mind
logos: study of the subject
Aristotle (384-322): naturalist and placed humans at top of Natural Scale of intelligence
Theory of memory: memories are result of three principles of association: similarity, contrast and
St Thomas Aquinas (1224-1274) - tried to reconcile Christianity with Aristotelian philosophy
-returned to the idea that humans were separate from other creatures
-humans alone possess a thinking rational soul
Rene Decartes- monism (separate mind and body), soul being “province of God”
-memory, perception dreaming- “properties” of the body, thus open to being understood in
-restate this dichotomy between humans and animals
Descartes’ View of the body
-objects must also apply to the body
-Human and nimal bodies are machines
-inspired by mechanical garden figures
-Was familiar with brain physiology
-sensations go to the brain
-motor actions originate from the brain
-fire moves skin on leg
-skin pulls thread
-thread open pore in the brain
-fluid flows to muscles
-leg muscles retract.
(fire is reflected in the leg withdrawal= reflex)
-body and mind are separate
-The mind reasons about the world and is separate from the mechanical or reflexive body
-Laws governing the mind are different from the natural laws of physics governing the mechanical
functions of the body
William Harvey’s empirical demonstration: blood circulation was a function of the operation of the
-important insights could be gained into the workings of the body and brain through the application
of systematic. Empirical methods
-Muller’s student Herman von Helmholtz: began first experimental examinations of human reaction
time. He argued for separation of sensation and perception as topic of study. Wilhelm Wundt: German professor mounted a campaign for psychology to be an independent
discipline rather than a stepchild of philosophy or physiology.
-scientific approach was favoured. (physics and chemistry) of conscious experience.
-first formal laboratory
G. Stanley Hall: studied briefly with Wundt
-established America’s first research laboratory in psychology.
-America’s first psychology journal.
-Driving force behind American Psychological Association (first president)
-Originated in Germany, blossomed to adolescence in America
Edward Titchener: Englishmen who immigrated to US
-Structuralism: based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its
basic elements and investigate how these elements are related
-to examine the contents of consciousness depended on introspection: the careful, systematic self-
observation of one’s own conscious experience.
-required training to make more objective and aware. Subjects were exposed to auditory tones,
optical illusions and visual stimuli under carefully control and systematically varied conditions and
were asked to analyze what they have experienced
limits of introspection: demise of structuralism: depending solely on an individual’s reflection to
document a phenomenon there is no independent objective evaluation of that claim.
-focus on perception, sensation
William James: American scholar trained in medicine
-functionalism: based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of
consciousness rather than its structure
-James became famous created the most influential text in history of psychology “Principles of
-impressed with natural selection
Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
Natural selection: survival of the fittest- individuals who are best suited for their environment pass
their genes along to the next generation
-behaviour traits can be selected
-nothing special about humans= can be studied scientifically
natural selection: heritable characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantage are more
likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations and thus come to be
selected over time.
-James realized consciousness is important characteristic of our species= functions rather than
-Also argued that structuralists’ dismisses the real nature of conscious experience- that it consists of
a continuous flow of thoughts. In analyzing consciousness and its elements, structuralists were
looking at static points in that flow. = wanted to understand the stream of consciousness
-more focused on how people adapt their behaviour to suit the demands of the world
- patterns of development, effectiveness of educational practices and behavioural differences
between the sexes.
First Women: Margaret Floy Washburn “The Animal Mind”= behaviourism precursor Leta Hollingworth: children’s intelligence, debunked theories that women were inferior
Mary Whiton Calkins: first women president of American Psychological Association
Others in Canada:
-Mary Salter Ainsworth: developmental psychology, attachment, Canadian Women’s army corps
-Mary Wright- developmental psychology, served in WW2
-Doreen Kimura- brain, neuro-motor mechanisms in human communication
John B Watson- behaviourism: theoretical approach based on the premise that scientific psychology
should study only observable behaviour.
-proposed abandon consciousness and focus of observable behaviour
-redefining psychology, scientific research rested on verifiability. Mental processes were private.
Behaviour: any overt (observable) response or activity by an organism
-extreme position of nature vs nurture: whether behaviour is determined mainly by genetic
inheritance or environment and experience.
-Responses to a stimulus: any detectable input from the environment (S-R psychology= biological
-Watson became a advertising executive
Gestalt psychology: perception- psychology should continue to study conscious experience rather
than overt behaviour.
Sigmund Freud: Austrian physician who focused on mental illness
- unconscious: contains thoughts, memories and desires that are well below th surface of conscious
awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behaviour
-idea of unconscious was not entirely new, people are not fully aware of forces affecting behaviour
-personality, motivation and abnormal behaviour and therapy.
-psychoanalytic theory of mental disorders: treated phobias, obsessions and anxieties. Attempts to
explain personality motivation and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of
-Carl Jung and Alfred Adler
B.F Skinner(1904-1990)- behaviourism, influenced by Watson and Pavlov’s conditioned reflexes
-no denying the existence of internal, mental events= “private events”
-environmental factors mould behaviour
-Organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes, and do not repeat responses
leading to neutral or negative outcomes
-Behaviour is governed by external stimuli, behaviour can be predicted by lawful principles like
arrows governed by the laws of physics.= NO free will
-trained pigeons to play ping-pong
- created OPERANT CONDITIONING
-Behavioural principles widely used in schools, factories, prisons, mental hospitals and other
Humanists revolt (1950s)- psychology (psychoanalytic= sexual urges, primitive and
behaviourism=criticized for preoccupation with simple animal behaviour) is dehumanizing Humanism: the theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially
their freedom and their potential for personal growth.
-Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers
Applied psychology: concerned with everyday practical problems (professional services)
Clinical psychology: the branch of psychology concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of
psychological problems and disorders.
Cognition: refers to metal processes involved in acquiring knowledge, thinking, or conscious
-Jean Piget- children’s cognitive development
-Noam Chomsky- psychological underpinnings of language
Cognitive perspective- emphasizes people’s manipulations of mental images surely influence
-Donald Hebb: The Organization of Behaviour: A Neuropsychological theory” countered
naturalistic observation: good for bullying
neutoethics: concern with neuroscience and ethics
Ethnocentrism: the tendency to view one’s own group as superior to others and as the standard for
judging the worth of foreign ways. = lack of Western interest in other cultures
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1659)
-Hobbes rejected the dualism of Descartes
-He applied new mathematical and mechanical principles of physics to mind as well as matter
Materialism: all behaviour results from physical processes (especially in the brain)
-belief: knowledge is the direct result of things in the wolrd impacting on our sense organs
His ideas expanded in the 17 and 18 and early 19 century
-John Stuart Mill
Empiricism: early school of psychological thought whose proponents denied the influence of
inborn or genetic factors
-Argument between those who believed that behaviour is largely shaped by experience and those
that believe that it is largely inborn is often described as the “Empiricists vs. Nativist Debate”
Pineal gland: input and output interact through the pineal gland. Part of the brain that releases
hormones and some neurotransmitters, essential for neural-communication.
American Psychological association 52 divisions in 1998
-Some represent areas of training and specialization (developmental, clinical…)
-Some are applied (ie teaching psychology, psychology and the law) Evolutionary psychology: examines behavioural processes in terms of their adaptive value for
members of a species over the course of may generation.
Irwin Silvermen: gender differences originated in human evolution as a result of sex-based division
of labour in ancient hunting and gathering societies
David Buss: jealousy, mating preferences, aggression and development
Positive psychology: uses theory and research to better understand the positive adaptive, creative
and fulfilling aspects of human existence
-positive experiences: happiness, love, gratitude, contentment and hope
positive individual traits- personal strengths and virtues
positive institutions and communities: how societies foster civil discourse, strong families, healthy
environments and group support.
Developmental Psychology: human development across the lifespan.
Social Psychology: interpersonal behaviour and role of social forces governing behaviour
Experimental: encompasses traditional core
Physiological Psychology: genetic factors of behaviour, brain nervous system, endocrine system
and bodily chemicals in regulation of behaviour
Cognitive Psychology: higher mental processes: memory, reasoning, information processing,
language problem solving, decision making and creativity
Psychometrics: measurement of behaviour and capacities usually through psychological tests.
(involved with test design to assess: personality, intelligence and a wide range of abilities).
(development of new techniques for statistical analysis)
Clinical psychologists (PhD, Ed. D or PsyD)= Psychiatrists (medical school) M.D degree.
Psychiatry: branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological
problems and disorders.
Counselling: overlaps with clinical: interviewing, testing and providing therapy. -Assistance to
people struggling with everyday problems of moderate severity. (family, marital or career)
Educational and school psychology: curriculum design, achievement testing, teacher training and
other of the educational process.
-Psych is empirical: knowledge should be acquired through observation
-Psych is theoretically diverse: a theory: system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of
- psych involves sociohistorical context- science is seen as an “ivory tower”, undertaking isolated
fro the ebb and flow of every day life. Psychology develops.
Themes- Subject matter
-behaviour is determined by multiple causes: multifactorial causation of behaviour
-behaviour is shaped by cultural heritage: culture: widely shared customs beliefs, values, norms,
institutions and other products of community that are transmitted socially across generations
-heredity and environment jointly influence behaviour- Watson: environment
Sir Fancis Galton: pioneer in mental testing- personality is genetically inherited
-people’s experiences are highly subjective: how we see and how we want to see. Chapter 2: Research Enterprise
Qualitative research: rather than necessarily working with variables defined in advance, tend to let
the meanings assigned to the experience emerge from the data they collect (words & narratives of
experiences)= PSYCHOTHERAPY (interviewing clients or studying video sessions)
Quantitative: examine cause-and-effect, variables may be defined prior to research; also involves
empirical observations in numeric quantities. (currently dominant method)
Goals of Scientific Enterprise:
1) Measurement and description- develop methods of measurement to investigate phenomenon
2) Understanding and prediction- higher-level goal of science is understanding. (hypothesis)
3) Application and control- once phenomenon is understood, application can be controlled
A hypothesis: is a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables
Variables: any measurable conditions, events, characteristics or behaviours that are controlled or
observed in a study
A theory: system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations
Operational definition: actions or operations that will be used to measure or control a variable
-measured sexual attraction by: -evaluating the amount of sexual imagery in the participant’ s
responsive to a projective measure (The thematic apperception Test)
-assessing the number of participants who called experimental confederate (the male or female they
had just met after crossing the bridge) after the experiment
Participants/subjects: are the persons or animals whose behaviour is systematically observed in a
Data collection techniques: procedures for making empirical observations and measurements
A journal: periodical that publishes technical and scholarly material, usually in a narrowly defined
area of inquiry
Research-two advantages: clarity and precision & relative intolerance of error
Research methods: various approaches to the observation, measurement, manipulation and control
of variables in empirical studies
Experiment: research method in which the investigator manipulates a variable under carefully
controlled conditions and observes whether any changes occur in a second variable as a result
Independent variable: condition or event that an experimenter varies in order to see its impact on
(ie Dutton and Aron- anxiety or arousal level of participants)
Dependent variable: variable thought to be affected by manipulation of independent variable
-usually a measurement of some aspect o the participant’s behaviour
(ie.= whether or not they called the confederate, and sexual imagery scores on the Thematic
Two groups of subjects (alike on dimensions related to the dependent variable) who are treated
differently with regard to the independent variable
-If groups are alike in all respects expect for the variation of manipulation of the independent
variable the difference in result of the dependent variable must be due to the manipulation of the
The experimental group: consists of subjects who receive some special treatment in regard to the
Control group: similar subjects who do not receive the special treatment given to the experimental
group Example: David Wolfe- effects of treatment on dating abuse of male and female teens who were at
risk based on history of maltreatment
-standard child services program- control group
-psychoeducational treatment intervention program- experimental group
= intervention was effective in reducing frequency and severity of abusive relationships.
(administration of treatment ONE INDEPENDENT VARIABLE)
Extraneous variables: any variables other than independent variable that seem likely to influence the
dependent variable in a specific study.
EXAMPLE) participants personality, and risk-taking on fear and sex study
Confounding variables: occurs when two variables are linked together in a way that makes it
difficult to sort out their specific effects.
-When an extraneous variable is confounded with an independent variable, a researcher cannot
identify effect on dependent variable
Random assignment: when all subjects have an equal chance of being assigned to any group or
condition in the study
-Field experiments: research studies that use settings very much like real life; in fact, the research
may occur in the context of everyday life and events. Involves sacrifice of some control over
extraneous variables for greater generalizability.
Naturalistic observation: researcher engages in careful observation of behaviour without intervening
directly with the research subjects or participants
-electronically active recorder (EAR)- an unobtrusive, portable audio recorder carried by
participants that periodically records their conversations and ambient sounds as they go about their
-Mexicans more sociable than Americans although rated sociability as less.
-used to study animal behaviour
-difficult to translate into numeric data that permit precise statistical analysis
Reactivity: when subject’s behaviour is altered by the presence of an observer
A case study: in-depth investigation of an individual subject= GENERAL CONCLUSIONS
Psychological autopsies- case studies of suicides
-interview of participant or relatives, examination of records (medical, social agency, and
psychiatric as well as relevant police investigations and forensic
reports), psychological testing
-93% suicides suffered from significant psychological disorder- depression and alcohol dependence
-interpersonal psychological therapy (IPT)- for people suffering from bulimia is shown to be
effective according to case studies
-good for studying psychological disorders and neuropsychological issues.
Brenda Milner: temporal lobes impact brain in memory and the existence of multiple memory
systems in the brain
Survey: questionnaires or interviews to gather information about specific aspects of participant’s
-depend on self-report data
-Correlational research broadens the scope of phenomena that psychologists are able to study.
-correlational research cannot demonstrate conclusively that two variables are casually related Statistics: the use of mathematics to organize summarize and interpret numerical data. Allows for
researchers to draw conclusions based on their observations.
Descriptive statistics: used to organize and summarize data
The median: score that falls exactly in the center of a distribution of scores
The mean: the arithmetic average of the scores in a distribution
The mode: the most frequent score in a distribution
A frequency polygon: a line figure used to present data from a frequency distribution
Frequency distribution: orderly arrangement of scores indicating the frequency of each score or a
group of scores
Negatively skewed distribution: pile up at a high scale (negative skew refers to the direction in
which the curve’s tail points) (pg. 60 fig 2.6)
A positively skewed distribution: scores pile up at the low end of the scale
Variability: the scores in the data set vary form each other and from the mean (range): subtract
lowest score from highest score
Standard deviation: index of the amount of variability in a set of data
When range is great the standard deviation will be large.
When range is low the standard deviation will be smaller.
Normal distribution: a symmetrical bell shaped curve that represents the pattern in which many
human characteristics are dispersed in the population
Percentile score: the percentage of people who score at or below a particular score
Correlation: exists when two variables are related to each other
A correlation coefficient: numerical index of the degree of relationship between two variables
-indicates the direction of the relationship positive or negative and how strongly the two variables
Positive correlation: variables co-vary in the same direction (rise or fall together)
Negative correlation: two variables co-vary in the opposite direction
-strength of correlation depends on the size of the coefficient
Inferential statistics: used to interpret data and draw conclusions
Statistical significance: exists when the probability that the observed findings are due to chance is
Replication: the repetition of study to se whether earlier results are duplicated
Meta analysis: the combination of statistical results of many studies of the same question yielding an
estimate of the size and consistency of a variable’s effects
Sample: collection of subjects selected for observation in an empirical study
Population: larger collection of animals or people (form which sample is drawn) that researchers
want to generalize about).
Sampling bias: exists when a sample is not representative of the population from which it is drawn
Placebo effects: participant’s expectations lead them to experience some change even though they
receive empty, fake, or ineffectual treatment
The social desirability bias: tendency to give socially approved answers to questions about oneself
Response set: a tendency to respond to questions in a particular way that is related to the content of
Experimenter bias: when researcher’s expectations or preferences about he outcome of a study
influence the results being obtained
The double-blind procedure: research strategy in which neither subjects nor experimenters know
which subjects are in the experimental or the control group
Internet-medicated research: studies in which data collection is done using the web
Chapter 3: The Biological Bases of Behaviour Sarah Witelson- examined Einstein’s brain: wider parietal region (toward the top and back of the
brain) and a distinct sylvian fissure (a groove separating the frontal lobe from the temporal lobe. ->
visual-spatial cognition, mathematical thought and imagery of movement, scientific thinking may be
related to his inferior parietal lobules
John Connolly used EEG to reveal damage to the left temporal region by a knife. Locked-in
syndrome: subject of movie “The Diving Bell and the Butterfly” a memoire of French journalist who
suffered a stroke. Jean-Dominique learned to communicate by blinking his left eye.= now syndrome
is actively studied in neuroscience
Neurons: are individual cells in the nervous system that receive integrate and transmit information
-majority signals transmitted to other neurons, some receive signals from sensory organs or carry
messages to the muscles to move the body.
The soma (Greek for body) or cell body: contains the cell nucleus and much of the chemical
machinery common to most cells
Sensory neurons: information from central nervous system
Interneurons collect and integrate send signals to the motor neurons
Motor neurons: long axons to collect and transfer information to muscles
Dendrites: the parts of the neuron that are specialized to receive information
Axon: ONE long, thin fibre that transmits signals away from the soma to other neurons or to
muscles or glands.
Myelin sheath: insulating material composed of mostly fat that speeds up the transmission signal,
derived from glial cells that encases some axons
-if it deteriorates signals are not transmitted effectively. =Multiple Sclerosis
-not all are myelin-covered at first, first develops in sensory and motor areas
Terminal buttons: small knobs that secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters
Synapse: junction where information is transmitted from one neuron to another
Glia: cells found throughout the nervous system that provide various types of support for neurons
-50% of the brain’s volume
-supply nourishment to neurons, help remove neurons’ waste products and provide insulation around
axons, & complex role in embryo development
-recent research says they also send and receive chemical signals and may be implicated in diseases
such as amyotropic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson’s disease.
-memory formation and gradual deterioration= Alzheimer’s disease
-involved with experience of chronic pain
-impaired neural-glial communication= Schizophrenia
The resting potential of a neuron: its stable, negative charge inside when the cell is inactive
-positive sodium and potassium and negative chloride ions enter and leave membrane, but do not
cross at the same time. Voltage at rest: -70 threshold for action potential= -60 to +50
Different rate= negative charged inside the cell. Resulting voltage=potential energy
Hyperpolarization: even more negative (refractory period)
Depolarization: becomes less negative (moving towards action potential)
An action potential: very brief shift in a neuron’s electrical charge that travels along an axon
-when neurons are stimulated the positively charged sodium ions come back in. The neuron’s charge
is less negative or even positive= action potential
Absolute refractory period: the minimum length of time after an action potential during which
another action potential cannot begin (hyperpolarized)
-the channels in the membrane that let sodium in close. Some time is needed before it is ready to
open again. Relative refractory period: the neuron can fire but threshold is elevated, more intense stimulation is
required to initiate an action potential
-weaker stimuli do not produce smaller action potentials.
-although it is all or nothing neurons can convey information about the strength of a stimulus by
varying the rate at which they fire action potentials (faster)
-various neurons transmit impulses at different speeds.
Ex. Thicker axons transmit neural impulses faster than thinner ones.
Synaptic cleft: microscopic gap between the terminal button of one neuron and the cell membrane of
another neuron. Must pass this gap in order for communication to occur.
-neuron that sends a signal across the gap is called the PRESYNAPTIC NEURON and the neuron
that receives the signal is the POSTSYNAPTIC NEURON
Neurotransmitters: chemicals that transmit information from one neuron to another
-within the buttons these chemicals are stored in sacs called synaptic vesicles.
-The neurotransmitters are released when vesicle fuses with membrane of the presynaptic cell and
tis contents spill into the synaptic cleft.
-They then diffuse across the synaptic cleft to the membrane of the receiving cell. They bind with
special molecules in the postsynaptic cell membrane at various receptor sites which are tuned to
recognize and respond to only certain neurotransmitters.
Postsynaptic potential: a voltage change at a receptor site on a postsynaptic membrane
-NO ALL OR NONE PRINCIPLE
-postsynaptic potentials are graded; they vary in size and they increase or decrease the probability of
neural impulse in the receiving cell in proportion to the amount of voltage change.
An excitatory PSP: positive voltage shift that increases the likelihood that the postsynaptic neuron
will fire action potentials.
Inhibitory PSP: negative voltage shift that decreases the likelihood that the postsynaptic neuron will
fire action potentials
-the direction of the voltage shift & direction of PSP depends on which receptor sites are activated in
the postsynaptic neuron, reaction only lasts a fraction of a second.
-After the neurotransmitters drift away from receptor sites or are inactivated by enzymes that
metabolize (convert them into inactive forms)
-Enough excitatory PSP occurs in a neuron- electrical currents accumulate= threshold cell voltage=
-Many inhibitory PSP occurs cancels the effect of excitatory PSP
Reuptake: a process in which neurotransmitters are sponged up from the synaptic cleft by the
-allows synapses to recycle materials, key process in synaptic transmission
-Thoughts, perceptions and actions= patterns of neural activity (fluid links in elaborate neural
-elimination of old synapses plays a role in creation of new synapses
-gradually eliminates less-active synapses.
-Hebb- Hebbian Learning rule: linkages might operate and come about One neuron stimulating
another neuron repeatedly produces changes in a synapse (possibly metabolic)= LEARNING
Acetylcholine: activates motor neurons controlling skeletal muscles, contributes to regulation of
attention, arousal, learning, motor control, sleep, dreaming and memory. Some Ach receptors
stimulated by nicotine (agonist)
-inadequate supply= Alzheimer’s disease Agonist: chemical that mimics the action of a neurotransmitter
Antagonist: chemical that apposes the action of a neurotransmitter. (Mimic only elementary shape
and causing blocking of action)
-AcH antagonist: curare: blocks action at the same Ach synapses that are fooled by nicotine-
muscles are unable to move
Monoamines: include three neurotransmitters: dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin.
Dopamine: control voluntary movements, pleasurable emotion.
Deterioration= Parkinsonism- disease marked by tremors muscular rigidity and reduced control over
voluntary movements. Treatment: L-dopa is converted to dopamine in the brain to partially
compensate for diminished dopamine activity
-Schizophrenia: marked by irrational thought, hallucinations, poor contact with reality, distortion of
routine adaptive behaviour= dopamine over-activity
-1% of the population are schizophrenic. More hospitalization than other disorders.
Treatment: DA antagonists reduce the neurotransmitter’s activity
Serotonin-releasing neurons play a role in regulation of sleep and wakefulness as well as eating
behaviour. Also evidence that neural serotonin circuits modulate aggressive behaviour.
Abnormal levels of monoamines can be related to some psychological disorders:
-Depressive disorder= low norepinephrine and serotonin.
-Eating disorders & OCD= abnormalities in serotonin
(Prozac, paxil, Zoloft- selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: serotonin remains in the cleft longer)
Norepinephrine: modulates mood and arousal
-cocaine and amphetamines elevate activity at NE synapses
Amphetamines and cocaine: temporary alterations at monoamine synapses
-mostly increase activity of dopamine and norepinephrine
-some theorists believe the rewarding effects of most abused drugs depend on increased activity of a
particular dopamine pathway. Dysregulation of the dopamine pathway causes withdrawal, craving
GABA: gamma-aminobutyric acid and glycine serves as a widely distributed inhibitory
-Valium and similar antianxiety drugs work at GABA synapses
-disturbances in GABA circuits= anxiety disorder
Endorphins: internally produced chemicals that resemble opiate effects
-modulation of pain
-endogenous opiods modulate eating behaviour and body’s response to stress.
-opiate drugs= Morphine and heroin= europhia (similar to natural endorphins)
-pain caused by the release by endorphins which neutralize some of the pain and create a feeling of
exhilaration. EX. “Runner’s high”
The peripheral nervous system: all nerves outside brain and spinal cords.
Nerves: bundles of neuron fibres (axons) that are routed together in the peripheral nervous system
Somatic nervous system: made up of nerves that connect to voluntary skeletal muscles and sensory
receptors. (skin, muscles, and joints) Requires:
Afferent nerve fibres: axons that carry information inward to the central nervous system from the
periphery of the body Efferent nerve fibres: axons tat carry information outward from the central nervous system to the
periphery of the body.
-Each body nerve contains many axons of each type. Somatic nerves= incoming (afferent) and
Autonomic nervous system: made up of nerves that connect to the heart, blood vessels, smooth
muscles and glands. Involuntary, visceral functions (heart rate, digestion and perspiration).
Mediates psychological arousal- Cannon’s: flight or flight response
Sympathetic division: the branch of autonomic nervous system that mobilizes the bodies resources
for emergencies (slows digestive processes, drains blood from periphery, lessening bleeding in case
Parasympathetic division: the branch of the autonomic nervous system that generally conserves
bodily resources (save and store energy-slow heart rate, reduce blood pressure, and promote
The central nervous system: brain and spinal cord.
Meninges: protective sheaths of the CNS
The cerebrospinal fluid: nourishes the brain and provides a protective cushion for it.
Ventricles: hollow cavities in the brain that are filled with CSF
Single neuron recording: record action potentials from a single recording using electrodes (seeing
spikes of action potentials
Electronehalograph EEG: device that monitors the electrical activity of the brain over time by means
of recording electrodes attached to the surface of the scalp recorded with a polygraph
-Awake: low voltage, high frequency brain waves.
Drowsy: higher-voltage, slower frequency brain waves
Deep dreamless sleep: high voltage low frequency brain waves.
Lesioning: involves destroying a piece of the brain
Milner’s patient HM suffered from epilepsy from a biking accident. HM had portions of his brain
removed: his medial temporal lobe, involving substantial portions of hippocampus and amygdala.
Helped reduce his convulsions.
“anterograde amnesia”- good memory of events that happened before the surgery but could not form
new long-term memories. (could read magazines over without finding familiar). Normal short term
memory. Existence of multiple memory systems and the importance of the medial temporal lobe.
Electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB): sending a weak electric current into the brain structure to
stimulate (activate) it
-categorizing patients’ responses to map brain part functions
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS): new technique that permits scientists to temporarily
enhance or depress activity in a specific area of the brain
-coil mounted on a small paddle held (magnetic field) over a specific area of head. Varying time and
duration of magnetic pulses a researcher can either increase or decrease excitability of neurons in the
-researchers are recently focused on deactivating discrete areas of the brain to learn more about their
functions(patients perform a perceptual or cognitive task). “virtual lesions”
Computerized topography Scan CT: computer-enhanced X-ray of brain structure. LEAST
EXPENSIVE and widely used.
-can be used to investigate enlargement of brains ventricles- schizophrenia?
Position emission tomography scanning PET: examine brain function by mapping actual activity in
the brain over time. Radioactively tagged chemicals are introduced in the brain, serve as markers of
blood flow or metabolic activity in the brain which can be monitored with X-rays.. Colour coded map indicati