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York University
PSYC 1010
Jennifer Steeves

Chapter 7 What are the three key processes involved in memory Describe 1 Encodingit involves forming a memory code getting the information in for example if you form a memory for a word you would emphasize on how it looks sounds or means Encoding requires attention 2 Storage its maintain the encoded information in memory over time keeping it in memory remembering it 3 Retrieval its the recovering of information from memory stores getting it out since information storage isnt enough to guarantee that youll remember somethingWhat is the next in line effect Why is it that when a person is just about to speak to a group of people that they dont remember much of what happened before they are about to speakwhat does the next in line effect illustrateThe next in line effect is when you dont remember something that has been mentioned or presented to you because you were preoccupied with something else Because they are too busy thinking about what they are going to say when they perform their speech The next in line effect illustrates that active encoding is a crucial process in memoryWhat must you do in order to remember information Give an exampleTo remember info you must pay attention to whatever it is youre trying to remember An example would be if you sit through a lecture without paying attention to the prof youllmost likely not remember anything heshe was talking aboutAttention it is the act of focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or eventsWhat is selective attention Why is it crucialSelective attention is paying attention to only a very small amount of the stimuli and ignoring others Its crucial for everyday life because I you werent able to filter out most of the potential stimuli around you life would be chaotic you wouldnt be able to get much doneWhat is attention often linked to Are stimuli screened out early during sensory input or late after the brain has processed the meaning or significance of the input Describe the cocktail party phenomenon Give an exampleAttention is often linked to a filter that screens out most potential stimuli while allowing a select few to pass through into conscious awareness It is believed that late stimuli are more probable The cockatail phenomenon suggests that attention involves late selection based on the meaning of the input after the brain has processed and analyzed its meaning An example would be if a person is at a crowded party where a lot of convos are taking place Say this specific person is talking to another person They will most likely be paying attention with their partner and filtering out other conversations that are taking place However if someone in another convo mentions their name that person may notice it even though theyve been ignoring that other convoWhich view late or early selection is supported more What have findings on attention suggested What does the location of our attention filter depend on DescribeNeither ample evidence was found for both Findings on attention suggest that the location of the attention filter is flexible not fixed The location of our attention filter depends on the cognitive load of the current information processing When we are attending to complicated high load tasks that consume much of our attentional capacity selection occurs earl But if we are involved in simpler low load tasks more attentional capacity is left over to process the meaning of distractions to allow for later selectionWhen do people have trouble focusing their attention Give an exampleIf they have two or more inputs to focus on simultaneously For example if that person at the party tried to continue their original convo while also monitoring the other convo where they were mentioned they would struggle in efforts to attend to both conversations and would remember less of their original conversationCan divided attention have a negative impact on performance What does it especially have an effect on How many attention consuming tasks can the human brain effectively handle at a time What happens when people are multi taskingYes especially on complex or unfamiliar tasks one When people multitask they are really switching their attention back and forth among tasks rather than processing them simultaneouslyWhat is the difference between effortful and automatic processing Which type of processing do we use for much of the info we want to remember In effortful processing youre picking up information because youre intentionally attempting to do so like when you listen to your psych prof lecture Automatic processing is processing that happens without your intention because of the frequency at which it occursIs attention crucial for the encoding of memories Is all attention created equal Yes NoWhat is the difference between structural phonemic and semantic codingWhat do the levels of processing theory propose List the types of encoding from most shallow to least shallow as well as least amount of time to least amount of time to processStructural encoding is a relatively shallow process that emphasizes the physical structure of the stimulus For example if words are flashed on a screen structural encoding registers how they were printed capitallowercase letters how many letters font size etcphonemic encoding This emphasizes what a word sounds like it involves naming or saying the words usually silently Semantic encoding emphasizes the meaning of the word It involves thinking about the objects and actions of the wordLevels of processing theory proposes that deeper levels of processing result in longer lasting memory codes Structural phonemic semanticIs processing time a reliable index of depth processing Is it possible to design a task where structural encoding takes longer than semantic encodingNo yesWhat are other ways other than structural phonemic and semantic encoding to form better memory codes Describe 1 Elaboration elaboration is linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding An example would be lets say you read that phobias are often caused by classical conditioning and you apply this idea to your own fear of spiders In doing so you are engaging in elaborationDifferences in elaboration can explain why different approaches to semantic processing result in varied amounts of retention Elaboration consists of thinking of examples that illustrate an idea If a person is reading an article and in the article more examples are given the person is more likely to remember more of the main ideas of the article as well as remember them for a longer period of time 2 Imagery its the creation of visual images to represent the words to be remembered It can also be used to enrich encoding Some words are easier to create images for than others ex juggler and truth juggler would be easier to remember because its easier to visualize It is easier to form images of concrete objects than abstract concepts Ease of image formation affects memoryHigh imagery words words that are easier to visualize are easier to remember than low imagery words words that are harder to visualizeDual encoding theory memory is enhanced by forming semantic and visual codes together 3 Self referent encodingmaking information personally meaningful to enrich encoding It involves deciding how or whether information is personally relevant An example would be you can remember the names of the stops on a bus route that you use or ones that your friends use without any effort Peoples recall of information tends to be slanted in favour of material that is personally relevant How does self referent encoding lead to improved recallIt provides additional elaboration and better organization of informationDescribe sensory memory What does the brief preservation of sensations in sensory memory give you Does it last long Sensory memory preserves information in its original sensory form for a brief time It usually only lasts a fraction of a second Sensory memory allows the sensation of a visual patter sound or touch to linger for a brief moment after the sensory stimulation is over That s
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