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PSYC Midterm Key Words.txt

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PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

Psyc 1010 Key Terms Associative Learning- learning that certain events occur together. The events ma y be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequenc es (as in operant learning) Cognitive learning- the acquisition of mental information, whether by observing events, by watching others, or through language Classical conditioning- a type of learning in which one learns to link to or mor e stimuli and anticipate events Behaviourism- the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that ( 2) studies behaviour without reference to mental processes. Most researchers agr ee with 1 but not 2 Respondent behaviour- behaviour that occurs as an automatic response to some sti muli Neutral stimuli- in classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning Unconditioned response- in classical conditioning, an unlearned, naturally occur ring response (such as salivation) to an unconditioned stimulus (US) (such as fo od in the mouth) Unconditioned stimulus- in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditional ly, naturally and automatically triggers a response (UR) Conditioned response- in classical conditioning, a learned response to a previou sly neutral (but not conditioned) stimulus (CS) Conditioned Stimulus- in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimul us that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response (CR) Acquisition- in classical conditioning, the initial stage, when one links a neut ral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins t riggering the conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening o f a reinforced response Higher-order conditioning- a procedure in which the second, often weaker stimulu s is introduced Extinction- the diminishing of a conditioned response Spontaneous recovery- the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished condit ioned response Generalization- the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses Discrimination- the ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and ot her irrelevant stimuli Law of effect- thornd▯ikeâprinciple that behaviors followed by favorable consequenc es become more likely, and behaviors that are followed by unfavorable consequenc es become less likely Reinforcement- in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows Shaping- an operant conditioning procedure in which rerinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behaviour Positive reinforcement- increasing behaviors by presenting positive reinforcers. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, st rengthens the response Negative reinforcement- increasing behavior by stopping or reducing negative sti muli. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response Primary reinforcers- an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfie s a biological need Conditioned reinforcer- a stimulus that gains it's reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; known as secondary reinforcer Reinforcement schedule- a pattern that defines how often a desired response will be reinforced Continuous reinforcement- reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs Partial intermittent reinforcement- reinforcing a response only part of the time ; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to ext inction than does continuous reinforcement Fixed ratio schedule- in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that rei nforces a response only after a specified number of responses Variable ratio schedule- in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses Fixed interval schedule- in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time ahead elapsed Variable interval schedule- in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule th at reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals Punishment- an event that tends to decrease the behaviour that it follows Positive punishment- adding an unwanted stimulus Negative punishment- removing a rewarding stimulus Latent learning- learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an ince ntive to demonstrate it Intrinsic motivation- s desire to perform s behavior effectively for its own sak e Extrinsic motivation- a desire to perform a behaviour to receive promised reward s or avoid threatened punishment Observational learning- learning by observing others Modeling- the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior Mirror neurons- frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions o r when observing another doing so. The ▯sramirroring of another's action may ena ble imitation and empathy Pro social behaviour- positive, constructive, helpful behavior. The opposite of antisocial Anti social- destructive behavior Attribution theory- the theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting e ither the situation or persons disposition Fundamental attribution error- the tendency for observers, when analyzing anothe râ▯▯s behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and overestimate the impa ct of personal disposition Attitudes- feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to resp ond in a particular way to objects, people, and events Peripheral route persuasion- occurs when people are influenced by incidental cue s, such as a speak ▯▯sâattractiveness Central route persuasion- occurs when interested people focus on the arguments a nd respond with favorable thoughts Foot-in-the-door phenomenon- the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request Cognitive dissonance theory- the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent. We can reduces the resulting dis sonance by changing our attitudes Normative social influence- influence resulting from▯▯a s desireâ to gain appro val or avoid disapproval Informational social influence- influence resulting▯▯ frowillinâgness to accept others▯▯ opinions about reality Social facilitation- stronger responses on simple well-learned tasks in the pres ence of others Social loafing- the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when poo ling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually account able Deindividuation- the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in grou p situations that foster arousal and anonymity Group polarization- the enhancement of a▯▯ grpoupsâiling inclinations through dis cussion within the group Groupthink- the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in s de cision-making out overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives Just-world phenomenon- the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get Scapegoat theory- the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by provid ing someone to blame Other-race effect- the tendency to recall face▯ d▯ofooneâace more accurately th an faces of other races. Also known as cross race effect Frustration-aggression principle- the principle that frustration-- the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal-- creates anger which can generate aggression Social scripts- culturally modeled guide for how to act in various situations Mere exposure effect- the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli inc reases liking of them Altruism- unselfish regard for the welfare of others Bystander effect- the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present Social exchange theory- the theory that our social behaviour is an exchange proc ess, the sim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs Reciprocity norm- A expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them Social- responsibility norm- an expectation that people will help those dependan t on them Social trap- a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pu rsuing their self interest, become caught on mutually destructive behaviour Mirror image perceptions- mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each is sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil an d aggressive Superordinate goals- shared goals that override differences among people and req uire their cooperation GRIT- graduated and reciprocated initiatives in tension reduction-- a strategy d esigned to decrease international tension Biological Perspectives- Concerned with the links between biology and behaviour, includes psychologists working in neuroscience, behaviour genetics, and evoluti onary psychology Neuron- A nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system Dendrites- A neuron's bushy, branching extensions that receive messages and cond uct impulses toward the cell body Axon- the neurone extension that passes messages through its branches to other n eurones or to muscles or glands Myelin Sheath- A fatty tissue layer segmentally encasing the axons of some neuro nes; enables vastly greater transmission speed as neural impulses hop from one n ode to the next Action Potential- a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon Threshold- The level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse Synapse- The junction between the axon tip of the sending neurone and the dendri te or cell body of the receiving neurone. Tiny gap at this junction is called th e synaptic gap or cleft Neurotransmitters- chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neur ones. When released by the sending neurone, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neurone, thereby influencing whether that neurone will generate a neural impulse Reuptake- A neurotransmitter's reabsorption by the sending neuron Endorphins- "morphine withi
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