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PSYCH CH 5-8 TEST 2 Dec 5.docx

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PSYC 1010
Neil Weiner

Chapter 5 Variations in Consciousness Somniloque sleep talking Narcolepsy fall asleep uncontrollably during daily routine Consciousness the awareness of internal and external stimuli continuous flow stream of consciousness Mind wandering persons experience of taskunrelated thoughtsestimated 1550 of time if task requires significant cognitive resources may be less accurate awareness of external information Mind wandering may be correlated with creativity Controlled judgments or thoughts and automatic processes unconscious inattentional Experiment people rating faces unaware of an associated with smell Malcom Gladwells book Blink referring to how quickly and effortlessly some of our judgments and choices seem to be made Electroencphalograph device that monitors the electrical activity of the brain over time by means of recording electrodes attached to the surface of the scalp tracings called brainwaves vary in amplitude height and frequency cycles per second cps Beta 1324 cps Normal awake thought alert problem solving Alpha 812 cps Deep relaxation blank mind meditation Theta47 cps Light Sleep Delta4 cpsDeep SleepBiological rhythms periodic fluctuations in physiological functioning Sleep and Daily cycle rhythmic variations blood pressure hormones urine physical functions alertness short term memory other cognitive performance and body temperature peaks in afternoon low at nightThere are multiple biological clocks When exposed to light retina sends direct inputs to a structure in the hypothalamus called the superchiasmatic nucleus which sends a signal to the pineal gland which may secrete appropriate hormones ex melatonin sleep hormone day light savings time april an hour forward more accidents in fall no effect Jet lag inferior state associated with measurable deficits in cognitive performance increase such related problems ex heart disease and autoimmune disordersFlying westbound have to stay up later Flying eastbound time is later there so bed time is earlier people find this much harder baseball teams that fly east win fewer games than those flying westmelatonin may decrease effects lack of sleep decrease immunity correlated with cancer diabetes ulcers blood pressure and heart diseasecarefully timed light exposure can realign the circadian rhythms of rotating shift workers in industrial settingsshift rotation can be reduced if workers move through progressively later times with longer periods between changes Electromyograph EMG records muscular activity and tension Electroculograph EOG records eye movements THE SLEEP CYCLE occurs about four times a night Awake low voltage highfrequency beta waves Drowsy alpha waves prominentStage 117 minutes transitional stage theta waves prominent breathing and heart rate slow muscle and body temperature decline LOWER FREQUENCY EEG neurons doing things in sync for lower frequency Hypnic jerks brief muscular contractions before falling asleep Stages 234 bodily rates decline continuously Sleep spindles occur weird blimps Stage 2 1025 mins mixed EEG activity SpindlesBRIEF BURSTS OF HIGHER FREQUENCY brainwaves grow in amplitude and slower frequency toward slowwave sleep deep sleep Slow wave sleep Stages 34 during which highamplitude low frequency delta waves become more prominent in EEG recordingsREM sleep usually occurs after 90 mins Rapid eye movements closed eyes lateral movementsWilliam Dement sleep researcher coined REM sleep difficult to wake from muscle tone is extremely relaxed VIVID DREAMING EEG dominated by highfrequency beta waves that resemble hose observed when people are alert and awakeCaryle Smith psych prof at Trent U found correlations with sleep stages and memoryEX Stage 2 may be important for procedural motortype tasks while REM sleep may be important for complex logictype tasksThe cycle changes gradually first REM is relatively short and gets longer around 4060 minutes in lengthSlow wave sleep occurs in early sleep cycle and REM piles up in the second halfAdults spend 1520 percent in slow wave and another 2025 percent in REMThe remainder of first year REM portion of infants sleep declines 30 Continues to decrease until it levels off at about 20 REM sleep remains fairly stable after adulthood slow wave sleep declines percentage spent in stage 1 increases slightly these trends are stronger in men than women may be contributing to increased frequency of night time awakening in elderlyrecent study shows that extended sleep opportunities in elderly but may need less sleep than younger adults Cosleeping parents and children sleeping together is discouraged in western culture but encouraged by the Japanese culture interdependence and group emphasis Siesta cultures tropical regions onetwo hour midday nap when shops close down
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