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APP Ch.4 Outline_3.doc

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 1010
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Krista Phillips

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Grant Clay Period 3 9/14/08 AP Psychology Outline Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception Red – Definition Blue - Important Points Green - Important People & Contributions 1. Sensation – The Stimulation of Sense Organs. 2. Perception – the Selection, Organization, and interpretation of Sensory Input. 3. Psychophysics: Basic Concepts & Issues a. Psychophysics - Study of how physical stimuli are translated into Psychological Experience. b. Gustav Fechner i. Psychophysics Psychologists in 1860’s at University of Leipzig. ii. Wilhelm Wundt based lots of research upon Fechner. iii. Question: For any Given Sense, what is the weakest detectable Stimulus? iv. Absolute Threshold – Minimum Stimulus Intensity that an Organism can detect. v. As Stimulus Intensity Increases, the Subject’s probability to responding to Stimuli Gradually increases. vi. The Absolute Threshold is the Stimulus Intensity detected 50% of the time. vii. Just Noticeable Difference (JND) – The smallest difference in stimulus intensity that a specific sense can detect. viii. Weber’s Law – The size of a Just Noticeable Difference is a constant proportion of the size of the initial Stimulus. 1. Weber’s Fraction – The Fractions that apply to different Sensory Inputs until a Difference is noted. Increases constantly proportionately. c. Signal-Detection Theory – The detection of stimuli involves Decision Processes, along as Sensory Processes, which are both influenced by a variety of factors besides Stimulus Intensity. i. Noise – Background distractions that lower the chance of detection of a Stimulus. d. Subliminal Perception – The registration of Sensory Input without conscious awareness. i. Such as Subliminal Messages in movies, advertisements, etc. John Krosnick – Experimented and found that “Subliminal stimulation generally produces weak effects. e. Sensory Adaptation – The Gradual Decline in Sensitivity to prolonged Stimulation. i. Ex. You jump in Cold Water; it is very cold at first, But You Get Used to It. ii. Process that keeps people tuned into the changes rather than constants in Sensory Input. 4. Sight a. The Stimulus: Light i. People need Light to See ii. Light – Form of Electromagnetic Radiation that travels as a wave at the Speed of Light. iii. Amplitude – Affects perception of brightness (Height). iv. Wavelength – Affects perception of Color (Distance between Peaks). b. The Eye i. Two Purposes: Channel light to the Neural Tissue that receives it (Retina). And they House the Retina. ii. Lens – Transparent eye Structure that focuses the light rays falling on the Retina. iii. Nearsightedness – Caused by Retina, Close objects are seen clearly, but distant objects appear blurry. iv. Farsightedness – Distant objects are seen clearly, but close objects appear blurry. v. Pupil – The opening into the center of the Iris that permits light to pass into the rear chamber of the eye. vi. Iris – Regulates the amount of Light entering the Pupil by controlling the size of the Pupil. c. The Retina i. Retina – Neural Tissue lining the inside back surface of the eye; it absorbs light, processes images, and sends visual information to the brain. 1. The Retina is a part of the Central Nervous System. ii. Optic Disk – A hole in the Retina where the Optic Nerve Fibers exit the eye. d. Visual Receptors: Rods & Cones i. Rods Outnumber Cones. ii. Located in the Retina. iii. Cones – Play a key role in Daylight Vision and Color Vision. iv. Fovea – Tiny spot in the center of the Retina that contains only Cones; visual clarity is best here. v. Rods – Play a key role in Night Vision and Peripheral Vision. 1. When you want to see an object in the dark, look slightly above or below where it should be to find it easier. e. Dark and Light Adaptation i. Dark Adaptation – The process in which the eye becomes more sensitive to light in low illumination. ii. Light Adaptation – Process in which the eye becomes less sensitive to light in High Illumination. f. Information Processing in the Retina i. Receptive Field of a Visual Cell – The Retina area that when stimulated, affects the firing of that Cell. 1. Light in the Center of the Receptive Field Increases firing Rate. 2. Light in the Outside of the Receptive Field Decreases Firing Rate. ii. Lateral Antagonism – Occurs when Neural Activity in a cell opposes activity in surrounding cells. 1. Allows viewing Contrast in sight. From light falling on center or outside of Receptive Field. g. Vision & The Brain i. Imaging is processed in the Brain. ii. Visual Pathways to the Brain 1. Optic Chiasm – The point at which the optic Nerves from the Inside half of each eye cross over and then project to the opposite half of the Brain. a. Leads to Thalamus 90% of the Time. Then to Occipital Lobe. b. 10% Leads to the Superior Colliculus, Then Thalamus, then Occipital Lobe. i. Belongs to the perception of Motion and Coordination of Visual input with other Sensory Input. c. Main Visual Pathway leads to Magnocellular and Parvocellular channels. d. Parallel Processing – 2 Channels simultaneously extract different kinds of Information from the same input. h. Information Processing in the Visual Cortex i. Hubel & Wiesel 1. Feature Detectors – Neurons that respond selectively to very specific Features of more Complex Stimuli. a. Gets more specific as Moving along the Visual Processing System. 5. Viewing the World in Color a. Color is viewed by Wavelength (Hue) Amplitude (Brightness) and Purity (Saturation). b. Subtractive Color Mixing – Works by removing some Wavelength of light, leaving less light than originally there. c. Additive Color Mixing – Works by Superimposing Lights, putting more light in the mixture than exists in any one light by itself. d. Trichromatic Theory - Color Vision holds that the Human eye has 3 types of Receptors with differing sensitivities to different light wavelengths. e.
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