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PSYC 1010
Heather Jenkin

What Is Psychology Psychology is a science of behaviour and factors which influence itPsychology includes two components 1 Directly observable activity The way one acts and reacts 2 Mental processes Not observable eg thoughts and motivation The Factors That Influence BehaviourBiological influences GenesIndividual influencesEnvironmental influencesNature vs Nurture Scientific Approach on Gathering info on PsychologySystematically gather information and evaluateEmpirical evidence gained through experience and observation Why use the scientific approachMinimize bias found in evaluationsSolves specific practical problems eg study in york attention span while driving Critical Thoughtstaking an active roleWhat is the claimIs the source credibleIs there evidenceAre there any explanationsWhats the appropriate conclusion 4 Goals of Psychology 1 Describe behaviour and mental processes 2 ExplainUnderstand causes of behaviours 3 Predict behaviours 4 InfluenceControl behaviours under certain conditions StructuralismWilhelm Wundt Leipzig 1879Edward Titchener USA established psychology as a unique branch of scienceDetermined structure of mind through the use of analytic introspection Thinking about thinkingSensations are basic elements of consciousnessSensations are studied through introspection The Wundt WW 1879 ExperimentThe experiment was to measure the time it took a person to push a button depending on the time you hear a ball drop The results showed 110th of a secondThe second time the experiment was ran the task was to push a button when consciously aware of the ball hitting the platform which took 210th of a second Doubling the time it took to take the first experimentIt was determined that the times were different due to your body having the ability to react before you are aware of it Therefore motor response reacted faster Mary Whiton Calkins 18631930Psychology PioneerBecame a memory researcher and the first female president of the APA American Psychological AssociationShe studied with William James but was denied a PhD at Harvard due to her gender Perspectives on BehaviourGuides to understandViewpoints to understand behavioursEach considers different components to be importantProvide history and context for study of psychology Behaviour has Diverse Causes Differing perspectives enrich our understandingSigmund FruedBelieved causes of behaviour were withinPsychological problems are the result of Motives in part of mind we are unaware ofunconsciousWe dont know because its part of our unconscious mindUnresolved past conflictsBroadened study and treatment of psychological disorders Behaviourism Watson SkinnerObservable behaviour was importantDidnt care about what we were unaware of unconsciouslyNot mental events therefore only study the behaviourBehaviour controlled by environmentControlled environmentcontrolled behaviour Cognitive Behaviour Albert Banadura Humans are thinking creaturesHumans dont just react to the environmentCognitive Behaviour Link between environment and the conscious mind Human PerspectiveSelf ActualizationReaching ones individual potentialGestalt PsychologyHow elements of experience are organized into wholesInterested in perception Cognitive PerspectiveFocus is How do mental processes influence motives emotions and behavioursHumans are information processors and problem solversDesigning information displaysComputer Analogy of information processingLanguage AcquisitionPiagetChild DevelopmentChildren are not Miniature adultsSpecific stages of cognitive development unfold as children mature
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