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Quiz

TEST TWO PSYCH1010 NOTES (Mod. 7-16)

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 1010
Professor
Heather Jenkin

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• Consciousness - Moment to moment awareness of ourselves and environment ◦ Subjective and Private ▪ Others cannot directly know out reality (and vice versa) ◦ Dynamic ▪ Ever-changing ◦ Self-reflective ▪ Mind is aware of its own consciousness Consciousness is… • alertness; being awake vs being unconscious • self-awareness; the ability to think about self • having free will; being able to make a ''conscious'' decision • a person's mental content, thoughts, and imaginings To explore the nature of consciousness, it helps to first choose a definition In the text consciousness is defined as: "Our awareness of ourselves and out environment" Aren't animals aware of their environment? If so, is out awareness different?… possibly… because we have a narrative experience of that awareness Forms of Consciousness Some occur spontaneously Daydreaming Drowsiness Dreaming Some are physiologically induced Hallucinations Orgasm Food or oxygen starvation Some are psychologically induced Sensory deprivation Hypnosis Meditation Psychology's relationship to this topic • Psychology was once defined as "the description and explanation of states of consciousness." • Now, consciousness is just one topic…… Brain and Consciousness: Findings and Debates • Finding ◦ Some rare "unconscious" patients have brain responses to conversation • Implication ◦ Don't judge a book by its cover when it comes to consciousness • Debate - what is going on in the brain that generates our experience of consciousness? • One view - Synchronized between the body and the mind Mind Body Problem • What is the relationship between mind and body? • Does the mind exist separately from the body? • Dualists say yes - the mind and body are interacting but distinct entities • Monists argue that 0 the mind and body are different aspects of the same thing ◦ That the mind is what the brain does • Descartes ◦ mind is non physical and immortal ◦ body is physical and mortal • Spinoza ◦ mind and brain are two different levels of explanation for the same thing • Reductionism ◦ mind-based concepts are simply biological constructs Measuring Consciousness • How do we operationally define inner states? • Self-Reports ◦ Direct but not verifiable • Physiological ◦ e.g., EEG ◦ Are objective but cannot indicate what person is periencing subjectively • Behavioural ◦ Performance on tasks ◦ Need to infer state of mind Rouge Test • Consciousness is a state of self-awareness • How would you measure consciousness behaviourally? ◦ Recognition of one's self in a mirror. • First used in a study in 1972 • Researchers put red lipstick (rouge) on children's noses and placed them in front of a mirror • Monitored their behaviour of seeing themselves with the red on their nose ◦ At 6 months of age, children socialized with the ''other child'' ◦ At 18 months of age, children started recognizing themselves ▪ Touching themselves and trying to wipe it off Consciousness in Animals Cognitive Unconscious • Controlled versus Automatic Processing • Controlled ◦ effortful ◦ voluntary use of attention, conscious effort ◦ difficult or new tasks ◦ slower but more flexible than automatic • Automatic ◦ little or no conscious processing routine, well-learned tasks ◦ fast but can inhibit finding 'new' solutions ◦ facilitates 'divided attention' ◦ routine, well-learnt tasks Conscious vs. Unconscious Activity: The Dual Track Mind • Conscious ''high'' track: ◦ Our minds take deliberate actions we know we are doing ◦ Examples: problem solving, naming an object, defining a work • Unconscious ''low'' track: ◦ Out minds perform automatic actions, often without being aware of them ◦ Examples: walking, acquiring phobias, processing sensory,details into perceptions and memories Think before you act? • In one study, students showed brain activity related to pushing a button BEFORE they were aware of they decision to push the button • Does this mean ''decision' is an illusion? • What experience from the beginning of the semester does this remind you of? • Why have two tracks? ◦ Possible benefit: not having to think about everything we do all at once • Examples ◦ You can hit of catch a ball without hang to consciously calculate its trajectory ◦ You can speak without having to think about the definition of each word ◦ You can walk and chew fun and carry on a conversation Unusual Consequences of Having a Dual Track Mind • Blindsight ◦ Case study ▪ A woman with brain damage but NO eye damage, was unable to use her eyes to report what was in front of her. BUT she was able to use her eyes to help her take actions such as putting mail in slots. What are the two mental ''tracks'' in this case? ▪ Describing mail and the slot: The ''high road'' or conscious track , in this case known as the visual perception track • Selective Attention ◦ There are millions of bits of information coming at our senses every second. ◦ So we have the skill of selective attention; out brain is able to choose a focus and select what to notice ◦ Selective attention and conversation ▪ The good news: we can focus our mental spotlight on a conversation even when other conversations are going on around us. This is known as the cocktail party effect. ▪ The bad news: we can hyper focus on a conversation while driving a car, putting the driver and passengers at risk • Selective INATTENTION ◦ refers to our failure to notice part of our environment when our attention is directed elsewhere • Inattentional Blindness ◦ Various experiments show that when our attentions focused, we miss seeing what others may think is obvious to see ◦ Some ''magic'' tricks take advantage of this phenomenon • Divided Attention ◦ How many things do you do at once? ◦ We can 'divide' attention ▪ Otherwise every action would require full attention ◦ It has adaptive limits • Emotional Unconscious ◦ Unconscious processes influence emotions and motivations ▪ Are influenced by events we are unaware of ▪ Mood can be affected by positive or negative word subliminally presented • Modular Mind ◦ Mind consists of separate but interacting information processing modules ▪ Sensation, perception, memory, problem solving emotion ▪ Process information in parallel ◦ Experience of consciousness is integrated output of modules Level of Consciousness • Freud's Model - 3 levels • Conscious ◦ Mental events we are currently aware of • Preconscious ◦ Outside of current awareness easily recalled ▪ what you had last night • Unconscious ◦ Not brought into conscious awareness under ordinary circumstances Lecture 10 - Module 8 Sleep and Dreams Sleep as a State of Conciousness • When sleeping, are we fully unconscious and "dead to the world"? ir is this the window to consciousness open… • Consider that ◦ We move around, but how do we stop ourselves from falling out of bed? ◦ We sometimes incorporate real-world noises into our dreams ◦ Some noises (from our baby's cry) wake us more easily than others. • How do we learn about sleep and dreams? ◦ We can monitor EEG/brain waves and muscle movements during sleep ◦ We can expose the sleeping person to noise and words, and then examine the effects on the brain [waves] and mind [memories]. ◦ We can wake people and see which mental state [e.g. dreaming] goes with which brain/body state. • We force ourselves into a 24 hour day. In the time that we're asleep, we go through 90 minutes of a sleep cycle. Daily rhythms and Sleep • The circadian (about a day) rhythm ◦ Refers to the body's natural 24 hour cycle, roughly matched to the day/night cycle of light and dark… ◦ What changes during the 24 hours? ▪ Over the 24 hour cycle, the following factors vary, rising and falling over the course of the day and night. ▪ Body temperature ▪ Arousal/energy ▪ Mental sharpness. ◦ ''Larks'' and ''Owls'' ▪ Daily rhythms vary from person to person and with age. • See slides for circadian rhythms ◦ We are cooler when we are sleeping, and higher during the day time. ◦ Plasma melatonin becomes high when sleeping but low when awake. ◦ Melatonin is making people sleeping when they're tired. It helps correct jet lag • The SCN (Super chiasmatic Nuclei) regulates the Circadian Rhythm • Circadian Rhythms ◦ Free running circadian rhythms ▪ Natural wake-sleep cycle longer than 24 hours ▪ Isolation studies show a 24.2 to 24.8 hours ▪ Influence tendency to be a ''morning person'' or a ''night person'' ◦ CircadianRhythms promote readiness for sleep ◦ Disruptions of Circadian Rhythms ▪ Jet lag ▪ Night-shift work ▪ Seasonal affective disorder ◦ Seasonal affect disorder ▪ Treated with phototherapy Sleep Stages and Sleep Cycles • Sleep Stages ◦ refer to distinct patterns of brain waves and muscle activity that are associated with different types of….. ◦ Cycle through stages roughly every 90 minutes ◦ Brain activity, other physiological responses change ◦ Beta waves occur when awake and alert… (15-30 cps) ◦ Alpha waves occur when getting drowsy ◦ Stages of sleep ▪ Stage 1 NREM-1 ▪ Light sleep ▪ theta waves ▪ Lasts a few minutes ▪ May experience 'body jerks' ▪ Stage 2 NREM-2 ▪ Sleep deepens ▪ Muscles more relaxed ▪ Harder to awaken ▪ Sleep "spindles" (1-2 seconds of brain activity) ▪ Stage 3 NREM-3 ▪ Sleep depends even further ▪ Regular appearance of delta waves ▪ Stage 4 ▪ Sleeps deepens yet again ▪ Delta waves dominate pattern ▪ Stage 4 and 3 together called ''slow wave sleep\ ▪ After stage 4 period, sleeper goes back through the earlier stages. ▪ Stage 3 then 2 but not another stage 1. ▪ Instead of stage 1, a new stage appears. ▪ REM Sleep (rapid eye movement) ▪ Rapid eye movements ▪ High arousal ▪ Frequent • Sleep cycles ….. REM SLEEP • What happens during REM sleep? ◦ Heart rate rises and breathing becomes rapid ◦ Sleep paralysis occurs when the brainstem blocks the motor cortex's messages and the muscles don't move. This is sometimes known as ''paradoxical sleep''; the brain is active but the body is immobile. ◦ Eugene Aserinsky's discovery: Dreams occurred during periods of wild brain active and rapid eye movements ◦ Physiological Changes ▪ Heart-rate increases ▪ Breathing more rapid and irregular ▪ Brain-wave activity increases ▪ Penile erections and vaginal lubrication ▪ REM sleep paralysis ▪ Difficult for voluntary muscles to contract Sleep: Brain and Environment • Involvement of several brain structures • Falling ASleep ◦ Regulated by basal forebrain and regions of brainstem • REM sleep ◦ Regulated by brainstem (reticular formation) ◦ Limbic system activity increases ◦ Association areas near visual cortex active ◦ Motor cortex active but signals blocked • Everyone knows the environment affects sleep • Effects of Environmental Factors ◦ Changes in season - Daylight savings time ◦ Shift work ◦ Stress ◦ Noise ▪ Increase arousal and heart rate ▪ Decrease time in deep slow-wave sleep ▪ Increase time in less restful sleep • Short and Long sleepers ◦ Many individual difference in sleep time ◦ Why? ▪ Genes ▪ More similar patterns among identical twins ▪ Environmental factors ▪ Time of day, life styles Why do we sleep? 1.Sleep protected our ancestors from predators 2.Sleep restores and repairs the brain and body 3.Sleep builds and strengthens memories 4.Sleep facilitates creative problem solving 5.Sleep is the time when growth hormones are active Effect of Sleep Loss/Deprivation ◦ Lose brainpower ◦ Gain weight ◦ Get sick ◦ Be irritable ◦ Feel old • Brain ◦ Diminished attentional focus and memory consolidation and increased risk of depression • Immune system ◦ suppression of immune cell production and increased risk of viral infections, such as colds • Fat cells ◦ Increased production and greater risk of obesity • Joints ◦ Increased inflammation and arthritis • Heart ◦ Increased risk of high blood pressure • Stomach ◦ Increased hinder-arousing gherkin and decreased hunger-suppressing leptin • Muscle ◦ reduced strength and slower reaction time and motor learning Types of sleep deprivation ◦ Short term (up to 45 hours without sleep) ◦ Long term (more than 45 hours without sleep) ◦ Partial (no more than 5 hours/night for 1 or more consecutive nights) • Negative impact on functioning ◦ Mood suffered most ◦ Followed by cognitive and physical performance • Underestimate negative effects ◦ Takes several nights to recover ◦ Does not make up in blocks (SLEEPING ALL WEEKEND) Sleep loss/Deprivation = Accident risk • Sleep loss results in more accidents, probably caused by impaired attention and slower reaction time Why do we sleep? • Restoration Model ◦ Sleep recharged bodies ◦ Sleep allows recovery from mental and physical fatigue • Evidence is mildly supporting ◦ Sleep about 1 minutes longer on days we exercise ◦ Adenosine (cellular waste product) may play role in decreasing alertness • Evolutionary/Circadian models ◦ Is adaptive ◦ Each species evolved a sleep-wake pattern that increased its chances of survival in relation to environmental demands ◦ Mechanism for conserving energy (metabolic rate 10-25% slower during sleep) • Restoration and Evolutionaryy theories ◦ contribute to Two-Facto model of sleep Changes in sleep with Age • Sleep less • REM sleep decreases during infancy and childhood • Time in stages 3, 4 (slow wave sleep) declines How to Sleep Well 1.Turn the lights low and turn all screens off 2.Ear earlier, and drink less alcohol and caffeine 3.Get up at the same time every day 4.Exercise (late afternoon is the best) 5.Don't check the clock; Just let it happen 6.Get counselling for anxiety and depression Sleep Disorders • Insomnia ◦ Chronic difficulty in falling asleep, staying asleep, or experiencing restful sleep ◦ Most common sleep disorder (10-40% of population) ◦ Multiple causes ◦ Biological, Psychological, Environmental ◦ Several Treatments ▪ Stimulus control; screens off, quiet ▪ Based on learning principles; do you have a TV you watch form your bed? get it out. ▪ Associate stimuli in sleep environment only with sleep • Pseudo-insomniacs ◦ Complain of insomnia - but sleep normally ◦ Individuals truly believe they have insomnia ◦ Research in sleep labs show most sleep normally • Narcolepsy ◦ Extreme daytime sleepiness and sudden, uncontrollable sleep attacks ◦ Cataplexy (sudden loss of muscle tone) ◦ Cause is unknown ▪ Genetic? (selectively bred in dogs) • REM-Sleep Behaviour Disorder (RBD) ◦ Loss of muscle tone that causes REM-sleep paralysis is absent ◦ Sleeper may ''act out'' dreams: kick, punch, move wildly ◦ Many RBD patients have injured self or sleep-partner • Sleep Apnea ◦ About 1-5% of population ◦ repeated cycle in which breathing stops and starts during sleep ◦ Lasts 20-40 seconds up to minute or two ◦ Severe cases = 400-500 times/night ◦ Most common cause ▪ Obstruction of upper airway • Sleepwalking ◦ Typically occurs during stage 3 or stage 4 ◦ More common among children 10-30% ◦ Causes ▪ Heredity, stress, alcohol, illness, medication ◦ Treatment ▪ Psychotherapy, hypnosis, drugs, behavioural (waking before sleepwalking), wait to outgrow it ◦ Myth ▪ waking a sleepwalker is dangerous • Nightmares ◦ ''bad dreams'' ◦ Everyone has them ◦ Occur more often during REM sleep • Night Terrors ◦ Frightening dreams that arouse sleeper to near-panic state When do we dream? • Dream can occur during any sleep stage • hypnagogic state: transition from waking to early stage 2 • Most dreams occur during REM sleep DREAMS • What do we dream about? ◦ Dreams often include some negative event or emotion especially failure dreams (being pursued, attacked, rejected) ◦ Dreams do not often include sexuality ◦ We may incorporate real world sounds and other stimuli into dreams ◦ Dreams also include imaged from recent, traumatic, or frequent experiences ◦ FREUD believed there was often a hidden latent content underneath the symbolic manifest content of dreams • Why do we dream? ◦ No agreed-upon theory ◦ Freuds psychoanalytic theory ▪ Wish fulfillment ▪ Gratification of unconscious desires/needs (secual aggressive urges) ◦ Activation-synthesis theory ▪ Activation - random neural activity ▪ Synthesis - brain making 'sense' of this ◦ Dreams serve no functional purpose ▪ By product of neural activity ▪ Brain synthesizes best fit story in order for you to understand it ◦ Cognitive Approach ▪ Problem solving Lecture 11 PSYCH1010 module 9/10 Hypnosis is: ◦ state of heightened suggestibility in which some people are able to experience imagined situations as if they were real. • Hypnotic induction ◦ Process by which hypnotist leads person into hypnosis • Hypnotic susceptibility ◦ Some people can, some people can't • Hypnotic Involuntary control ◦ No unique power to get people to behave 'against their will' ▪ Isn't completely hypnotized but just doing so because being told. ◦ Amazing feats? • Increased pain tolerance ◦ Hypnosis can increase pain relief ◦ so can mental imagery • Memory ◦ Enhancement of memory ◦ Controlled experiences yield mies result ◦ Some memories are 'pseudo memories' Theories of Hypnosis • Dissociation Theories ◦ hypnosis involved division of consciousness ◦ Hilgards concept of ''hidden observer'' (2nd part of consciousness) • Hypnotized person simultaneously experiences two steams of consciousness ◦ One steam responds to hypnotist's suggestions ◦ Other stream monitors behaviour but remains in the background (''hidden observer'') • Social Cognitive theories ◦ Hypnotic experiences are result of people's' expectations ◦ Person is not faking, but becomes absorbed in the 'role' of being hypnotized MODULE 10 Drugs • Psychoactive drugs are chemicals introduced into the body which alter perceptions, mood, and other elements of conscious experience • Dependance/Addictions ◦ Many psychoactive drugs can be harmful to the body ◦ Psychoactive drugs are particularly dangerous when a person develops an addiction or becomes dependant on …. FINISH • Hallucinogenics ◦ have been used for millennia ◦ Psycho active drugs pervasive part of society ▪ Modify brain chemistry - cross blood-brain barrier ▪ Facilitate or inhibit synaptic transmission • Agonists ◦ Drugs that increase neurotransmitter activity • Antagonists ◦ Drugs that inhibit or decrease neurotransmitter activity Tolerance • Tolerance of a drug refers to the diminished psychoactive effects after repeated use. • Tolerance feeds addiction because users take increasing amounts of a drug to get the desired effect. • The more you use the more tolerance you have for it the more you will need to use to get the same effect as when you first started using it the drug. (Advil example) • Drug Tolerance ◦ Deceases in responsivity to drug (needs larger doses) ◦ Body attempts to maintain homeostasis • Compensatory Responses ◦ Physiological reactions opposite to that of drug ◦ Brain is adjusting to body imbalances • Withdrawal ◦ Compensatory responses when your body is used to having the drug and suddenly you stop ◦ After the benefits of a substance wear off, especially after tolerance has developed, drug users may experience withdrawal (painful symptoms of the body readjusting to the absence of the drug) ◦ With drawl worsens addiction because users want to resume taking the drug to end withdrawal symptoms • Dependence ◦ In physical dependence, the body has been altered in ways that create cravings for the drug (e.g. to end withdrawal symptoms) ◦ In psychological dependence, a person's resources for coping with daily life wither as a drug becomes "needed" to relax, socialize, or sleep ▪ Tolerance: the need to use more to receive the desired effect ▪ Withdrawal the distress experienced when the ''high'' subsides ▪ Use ding more than intended ▪ Persistent, failed attempts to regulate use ▪ Much time spent preoccupied with the substance, obtaining it and recovering ▪ Important activities reduced because of use ▪ Continued use despite aversive consequences ◦ • Environment is a powerful influence ◦ Involves classical conditioning ◦ Environment becomes associated with drug ◦ Physical setting triggers compensatory responses • Conditioned Drug Responses ◦ Tolerance for drug influences by familiarity of drug setting ◦ In an unfamiliar setting 'overdose' reaction can occur even when typical amount of drug is used • Myths about substance abuse ◦ Drug tolerance always leafs to significant withdrawal ◦ • Depressants are chemicals that reduce neural activity and other body functions ◦ Moderate doses ▪ Reduce feelings of anxiety; produce euphoria ◦ High doses ▪ Slow vital life processes ▪ Can be fatal ◦ Alcohol ▪ Nervous system depressant ▪ initial ''upper'' phase then brain centres become depressed ▪ Increases activity of GABA (main inhibitory neurotransmitter) ▪ Decreases activity of glutamate (major excitatory neurotransmitter) ▪ Combination crease ''high' then 'down' phase ▪ Effects of alcohol use ▪ Slow neural processing, reduced sympathetic nervous system activity and slower thought and physical reaction ▪ Reduced memory formation caused by disrupted REM sleep and reduced synapse formation ▪ Impaired self-control, impaired judgement, self-monitoring, and inhibition, increased accidents and aggression ▪ Measure of alcohol concentration in blood ▪ Elevated BAL linked to risky and harmful behaviours ▪ Alcohol Myopia - shortsightedness in thinking ▪ ▪ ▪ B H Behavioural Effects A o L u r s t o l e a v e b o d y ▪ ▪ ▪ 0 1 Decreased alertness, impaired reaction time in some . people 0 3 ▪ ▪ ▪ 0 2 Decreased alertness, impaired judgment and reaction . time, feeling of relaxation, release of inhibition 0 5 ▪ ▪ ▪ 0 4 Severely impaired reaction time, moto functions, and . judgement less cuation 1 0 ▪ ▪ ▪ 0 1 Gross introxication impairments worsen . 0 1 5 ▪ ▪ ▪ 0 ? Extreme sensory…. . 2 5 ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ◦ Barbiturates and Tranquilizers ▪ Depress nervous system - increase activity of GABA ▪ Highly addictive - several months needed to lose physiological dependancy • Stimulants ◦ Stimulate sympathetic nervous system ◦ Caffein ▪ adds energy ▪ disrupts sleep for 3-4 hours ▪ can lead to withdrawal symptoms if used daily ▪ headaches ▪ irritability ▪ fatigue ▪ difficulty concentrating ▪ depression ◦ Nicotine ▪ Increases heart rate and blood pressure ▪ Arouses the brain to a state of increased alertness ▪ At high levels, relaxes muscles and triggers the release of neurotransmitters that may reduce stress ▪ Why do people smoke? ◦ Amphetamines ▪ Increase dopamine and norepinephrine activity ▪ Continuous heavy use can produce amphetamine psychosis ◦ Methanmphetamine ▪ Triggers the sustained release of dopamine, sometimes leading to eight hours of euphoria and energy ▪ What happens next: irritability, insomnia, seizures, hypertension, violence, depression ▪ "Meth" addiction can become all-consuming ◦ Ecstasy (MDMA) ▪ Ecstasy is a synthetic stimulant that increases dopamine and greatly increases serotonin ▪ Effects on consciousness: euphoria, CNS stimulation, hallucinations, and artificial feeling of social connectedness and intimacy ▪ What happens next? ▪ In the short run, regretted behaviour, dehydration, overheating, and high blood pressure ▪ Make it past that and you might have ◦ Cocaine ▪ Blocks the reuptake and thus increases levels at the synapse of ▪ Dopamine (feels rewarding) ▪ Serotonin (lifts moods) ▪ Norepinephrine (provides energy) ▪ Effect on consciousness: euphoria at least for 45 minutes ▪ Crack is just a level two of cocain ▪ What happens next: ▪ euphoria crashes into a state worse than before taking the drug, with agitation, depressing and pain ▪ Users develop tolerance; over time, withdrawal symptoms of cocaine use get worse and users take more than normal • Opiates: highly addictive depressants ◦ Opium: product of poppy plant ◦ Bing to receptors activated by endorphins ▪ Provide pain relief ▪ cause mood changes, including euphoria ◦ Highly addictive and traumatic withdrawal ▪ 2% of Americans have used heroin ▪ 25% of them have become addicted • Hallucinogens ◦ Produce hallucinations ▪ Many derived form natural sources ◦ Distory or intensify sensory experience ▪ Can blur boundaries between reality and fantasy ◦ LSD ▪ has inhibiting effect on serotonin ▪ suspected to account the dream like perceptions ◦ Marijuana ▪ binds with brain cannabinoid receptors, may increase GABA, dopamine activity ◦ What happens ▪ impaired motor coordination, perceptual ability, and reaction time ▪ THC accumulates in the body, increasing the effects of next use ▪ Over time the brain shrinks in areas processing memory and emotion ▪ Smoke inhalation damage Lecture 12 MOD 11, 12 Chromosomes and Inheritance • The human genome in lures 46 chromosomes in 23 sets matched sets; each chromosome has the same gene locations • This includes the X and Y chromosomes, not a matched set in males, who are missing some genes on the Y • A biological • — • Heredity encoded in combinations of bases adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine • Genes contain bases, carry codes for protein manufacture Mapping the Genetic Code • Human Genome Project (1990) ◦ Genetic map published 2001 ◦ 25, 000 genes ◦ Fewer then expected ◦ 200 genes from bacteria inserted into early ancestors ◦ More than 75 genes that contribute to hereditary diseases have been identified. • The Human Genome: 20,000 to 25,000 Genes ◦ Human genomes are so nearly identical that we can speak of one universal human genome. ◦ Yet tiny genetic differences make a difference, if there is a: ▪ 0.001 percent difference in genome your DNA would not match the crime scene, you are not the baby‟s father ▪ a 0,5 to 4 percent difference in genome, you may be a chimpanzee Chromosomes and Genes. • Genotype ◦ Specific genetic make up ◦ Present from conception ◦ Never change • Phenotype ◦ Observable characteristics (physically expressed) ◦ Can be altered by other genes, environment ◦ e.g. how tall you „can‟ grow versus how tall you „actually‟ grow • How Genes Work ◦ Genres are not blueprints, they are molecules ◦ These molecules have the ability to direct the assembly of proteins that build the boy ◦ This genetic protein assemble can be turn on and off by the environment, or by other genes ◦ Any trait we see is a result of the complex interactions of many genes and countless other molecules Dominant, Recessive and Polygenic • So why aren‟t genotype and phenotype always identical? • Characteristic displayed if: ◦ Dominant gene from either parent ◦ Two recessive genes (one form each parent) ◦ Polygenic trasmision (multiple gene pairs influence phenotype) Genetic Engineering • Recombinant DNA procedures ◦ Enzymes cut DNA ◦ Combined with DNA from another organism ◦ Inserted into host cell • Gene Knockout ◦ Particular function of the gene is eliminated by preventing neuronal response to a particular neurotransmitter • Problem ◦ Few behaviours are controlled by single gene ◦ Knocking out a particular gene could disrupt a wide range of functions. Controlling Variables • Twins ◦ Monozygotic ▪ One egg and sperm later on split into two ◦ Dizygotic ▪ Two eggs fertilized and going into the same time Behaviour Genetics Techniques • Study of genetic relatedness ◦ With parents = 50% ◦ Siblings = 50% ◦ Grandparents = 25% • Heredity ◦ Passage of characteristics by way of genes • Heritability ◦ How much variation is attributed to genetic differences • Heritability Coefficient ◦ Estimate of how much of characteristics is due to genetic factors Identical vs. Fraternal Twins • studies of twins in adulthood show that identical twins are more alike than fraternal twins in: ▪ personality traits such as sociability and emotional instability ◦ Behaviours, outcomes ▪ such as the rate of divorce ◦ Abilities ▪ sports, test scores, intelligence ◦ Studies of twins in adulthood show that identical twins are more alike than fraternal twins in • studies of identical twins raised apart ◦ Similarities found in identical twins despot e being raised in different homes ▪ Personality, styles of thinking and relating ▪ Abilities/intelligence test scores ▪ Attitudes ▪ Interests, Tastes ▪ Specific fears ▪ Brain waves, heart rate • Adoption and Twin Studies • Adopted children - frequently more similar to biological parents • Identical Twins more similar - even when reared apart. Can you roll your tongue? • It is thought that tongue rolling is controlled by one allele on one gene • It is possible for 2 non rolling parents to have a tongue rolling child • WHY • Being skeptical I went further because I know of a rolling ( R ) offspring of two non rolling ( NR ) parents • Individuals with R parents are much more likely to be R than individuals with NR parents • Not clear how the common smily environment could influence R, so this suggests that there is a large genetic influence on tongue-rolling • However, the large number of R individuals with two NR parents is inconsistent with the myth that tho s is a simple one-gene, two-allele genetic character, with R completely dominant to NR Genetic Influence on Behaviour • Intelligence ◦ Genetics or Environment? • If it is completely controlled by genes ◦ Individuals with same genets should have same IQ scores ▪ accounts for 50-70% • More important questions ◦ how do they interact with each other Reaction Range ◦ Are there genetically determined „boundaries‟ on the expression of a trait? • Reaction Ranges ◦ Tange of possibilities - upper and lower limited - that the genetic code allows ◦ Individual inherits a range for potential expression of a trait ◦ Environmental effects determine where person falls within these limits Biological vs Adoptive Relatives • Studies have been performed with adopted children from whom the biological relatives are known • Findings… Parenting Does Matter • Despite the strong impact of genetics on personality, parenting has an influence on ◦ religious beliefs and and shit like that • Parenting is an influence but siblings are different because siblings only share half of their genes • Genetic difference become amplified as people react to them differently • Siblings are raised in slightly different families; the youngest has more older siblings and has older (wiser, more tired) parents Temperament is another difference not caused by Parenting • From infancy into adulthood, most people do not seem to change temperament (defined as a person‟s general level and style of emotional reactivity) • According to some researchers, three general toes of temperament appear in infancy ◦ “easy” ◦ “difficult” ◦ “slow to warm up” Molecular Genetics • Molecular genetics is the study of molecules structure and function of genes • Molecular genetics might help us see exactly how specific genes have an influences on behaviour • Genetic tests can reveal which propels are at risk for many physical diseases and may soon identify people at risk of mental health disorders • Ethical conundrum: should people use genetic tests to select sperm, eggs, and even embryos? • Genetic counselling ◦ what do genetic counsellors do? ◦ provision of medical information about genetic disorders and risks ◦ help individuals make decisions about their health, pregnancies Nate and nurture working together Interaction of Genes and Environment • Some traits, such as the overall design of our bodies, are set but genes • other traits such as physical and mental abilities, develop in response to experience ◦ how does the interaction of genes and environment work? • Genetic traits the influence the social environment, which in turn affect behaviour • Self Regulation: genest turn each other on and off in response to environment conditions ◦ Shortened daylight triggers animals to change fur colour or to hibernate • Epigenetics: the environments acts on the surface of genes to alter their activity ◦ Obesity in adults can turn off weight regulation genes in offspring the human approach to nature and nurture • the trait of being adaptable is built into the human genome • we have minds which allow us to change out behaviour in response to the environment to greater degree than other species • we even shape out environment to suit our nature • evolution and behaviour ◦ evolutionary psychology ▪ how behaviour and tendencies have evolved in response to environmental demands ▪ Natural selection: how it works ▪ begin with a species genome which contains a verity of versions of genes that shape traits ▪ conditions make it difficult for individuals with some traits to survive long enough to reproduce ▪ other individuals have then been “selected” to carry on ◦ Adaptions ▪ Products of natural selection ▪ allows organisms to meet environmental challenges to their survival ▪ example of human adaption ▪ bipedal locomotion ▪ development of tools and weapons ▪ types of adaptions ▪ broad ▪ learn language, reason logically ▪ domain specific ▪ solve particular problem ▪ mate selection ▪ choosing safe food ▪ avoiding certain environmental hazards ◦ Evolution of Human brain ▪ Greatest growth in areas concerned with higher mental processes - attention, memory, thought, language ▪ Important = role of culture ▪ Environmental input to evolutionary mechanisms ◦ Personality ▪ Evolutionary personality theory (buss 1999) ▪ limited # of dimensions to personality ▪ Found universally (e.g., extraversion, emotional stability, conscientiousness, openness to new experiences) ▪ Help us achieve 2 goals ▪ Survival ▪ Reproduction Lecture 13 MOD 12 Mating Systems and Parental Investment • The evolution of desire ◦ have we evolved patterns for choosing a mate and rearing our children? • Parental Investment ◦ Time, effort, energy, risk associated with caring successfully for each offspring ◦ Humans invest a great deal in small number of offspring ◦ Other species produce large number of offspring and offer little care Mating Systems • Fascinating and complicated relationships that bing us together • Trivers (1972) ◦ Sex differences in parental investment explain mating systems ◦ Two parents do not necessarily make equal parental investment • Having competition for sex with highest parental investment • Male and Female Differences: focusing on mating preferences ◦ First issues: quantity (of mating) ▪ Generally men think more than women about sex, and men are more likely to think that casual sex is acceptable ▪ Why might natural selection have resulted in greater male promiscuity? ▪ An evolutionary psychologists‟ answers: ▪ Men who had the trait of promiscuity were more likely to have their genes continue, and even spread, in the next generation. And there is little code to spreading and shit ◦ Possible evolutionary strategies in seeking partners ▪ Q. How would evolutionary psychology explain why males and females have difference preferences for sexual partners? ▪ Men seek women with a fuller figure….. ▪ To make sure they are not too young or too old to have children? ▪ Women seek males with loyal behaviour and physical/social power and resources ▪ in order to ensure the survival of the mothers offspring? ▪ Monogamous ▪ Two parents have equal parental investment ▪ Little sexual dimorphism between males and females (can‟t tell) ▪ Polygynous ▪ one male; many females ▪ Greater sexual dimorphism in size/strength between males/females ▪ Females more discriminating in choice of mate ▪ Males compete for access to females ▪ prime example - Lions ▪ Polyandry ▪ One female - many males ▪ Females compete for access to males ▪ Sexual dimorphism - female stronger, more aggressive ▪ prime example - queen bees, bees ▪ Polygynandry ▪ Promiscuous relationships among males/females ▪ many men, many women ◦ What do men and women want? ▪ Looks? money? fidelity? respect? dependability? ▪ Is beauty in the eye of the beholder? ▪ Across cultures - similarities in mate preferences ▪ For both men and women… ▪ Mutual attraction, dependability, emotional stability ▪ For men ▪ Physical attractiveness, health are rated important ▪ For women ▪ Earning potential, status, ambitiousness are rated important ▪ the Ideal mate ▪ Women ▪ older (about 3 ½ years older) ▪ Symmetrical face (indicative of health) ▪ High parental investment ▪ Men ▪ Youth and health (reproductive potential) ▪ Symmetrical face MODULE 12 • Experience and Brain Development ◦ Rats living in an enriched environment (more social interaction and physical play) experiences a greater growth in brain size and complexity than those rays living in an impoverished environment • Brain development means growth and pruning ◦ To make out well-used brain pathways work better, the unused connections are „‟pruned‟‟ away ◦ This means that if certain abilities are not used, they will fade ◦ Impact of Experience/Nurture on brain development ▪ Repeated practice at a finger-tapping task begins to activate a [slightly] larger group of motor neurons • Is parenting a powerful environmental influences on development? ◦ Generally environment influences, including parenting, account for about 10 percent of temperament, although a much higher percentage for other features such as values ◦ Non abusive „‟average‟‟ parents should ease off on both the blame and the credit they assume for how their kids turn out • Peer Influence ◦ The degree of peer influence is hard to trace. Apparent conformity (the whole group smokes) could be a selection effect (they get together because they want to be with others who like to smoke) ◦ Interaction with peers can teach new social skills ◦ Parents may try to have indirect influence by selecting a child‟s peers, such as by selecting a school or neighbourhood. However, ultimately, most children control their own peers. • Parents VS Peers - battling over non-genetic influence ◦ Parents ▪ have more influences on education and career path ▪ Cooperation ▪ Self-discipline ▪ responsibility ▪ religion ▪ style of interaction with authority figures ◦ Peers ▪ Cooperation skills ▪ learning the path to popularity ▪ choice of music and other recreation ▪ choice of clothing and other cultural choices ▪ good and bad habits • Culture influences on Development ◦ The nature of culture ▪ Culture refers to the patterns of ideas, attitudes, values, lifestyle habits and traditions shared by a group of people and passed on to future generations ▪ Culture is not just an influence on out nature, but it is also part of out nature. Humans form not only relationships, but culture ◦ Variation across cultures ▪ Each culture has norms—standards for acceptable, expected behaviour ▪ Example: „‟eww, you wear your shoes in the house?” ▪ Culture chock: feeling lost about what behaviours are appropriate ◦ Examples of cultural variation over time ▪ Cultural variation can occur even within one culture: ▪ Language changes in vocabulary and pronunciation ▪
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