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Test One Vocabulary.docx

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PSYC 1010
Heather Jenkin

TEST ONE: TEXTBOOK VOCABULARY + DEFINITIONS MODULE 1 Behaviourism: the view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behaviour with reference to mental processes Humanistic psychology: historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people Cognitive neuroscience: the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory and language) Psychology: the science of behaviour and mental processes Nature-nurture issue: the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviours Natural selection: the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations Levels of analysis: the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon Bio-psycho-social approach: an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological and social-cultural levels of analysis Basic research: pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base Applied research: scientific study that aims to solve practical problems Counseling psychology: a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (work, school or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being Clinical psychology: a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders Psychiatry: a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical treatments, as well as psychological therapy Positive psychology: the scientific study of human functioning, with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive Community psychology: a branch of psychology that studies how people interact with their social environments and how social institutions affect individuals and groups SQ3R: a study method incorporating five steps - survey, question, read, retrieve, review MODULE 2 Hindsight bias: the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it (I knew it all along) Critical thinking: thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions; it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions Culture: the enduring behaviours, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next Informed consent: an ethical principle that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate Debriefing: the post-experimental explanation of a study to its participants; includes its purpose and any deceptions that occurred MODULE 3 Theory: an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviours or events Hypothesis: a testable prediction, often implied by a theory Operational definition: a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables Replication: repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances Case study: an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles Naturalistic observation: observing and recording behaviour in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation Survey: a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes of behaviours of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative or random sample of the group Population: all the cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn Random sample: a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion Correlation: a measure of the extent to which two factors very together, and thus how well either factor predicts the other Correlation coefficient: a statistical index of the relationship between two things (+1.00 = perfect positive correlation, 0.00 = no relationship, -1.00 = perfect negative relationship) Scatter plot: a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation (little scatter indicates high correlation) Experiment: a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variable) to observe the effect on some behaviour or mental process (dependent variable) Experimental group: the group that is exposed to a treatment Control group: the group that is not exposed to a treatment; serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment Random assignment: assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing pre-existing differences between those assigned to the different groups; it controls for possible confounding variables Double-blind procedure: an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo Placebo effect: experimental results caused by expectations alone; an individual thinks they are getting a treatment, so they feel better Independent variable: experimental factor that is manipulated; variable whose effect is being studied Confounding variable: a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment Dependent variable: the outcome factor; variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable Mode: the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution Mean: the arithmetic average of a distribution Median: the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it Range: the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution Standard deviation: a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score Normal curve: a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; normal distribution of the data Statistical significance: statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance MODULE 4 Biological perspective: concerned with the links between biology and behaviour Neuron: a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system Dendrites: a neuron's bushy, branching extensions that receive messages and conduct impulses towards the cell body Axon: the neuron extension that passes messages through its branches to other neurons or to muscles Myelin sheath: a fatty tissue layer segmentally encasing the axons of some neurons Action potential: a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon Threshold: the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse Synapse: the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron Neurotransmitters: chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse Reuptake: a neurotransmitter's re-absorption by the sending neuron Endorphins: natural, opiate-like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and pleasure Nervous system: the body's speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the PNS and CNS Central nervous system (CNS): the brain and spinal cord Peripheral nervous system (PNS): sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to rest of the body Nerves: bundled axons that form neural 'cables' connecting CNS with muscles, glands and sense organs Sensory system: neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord Motor neurons: neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands Interneurons: neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs Somatic nervous system: the division of the PNS that controls the body's skeletal muscles Autonomic nervous system: part of the PNS that controls the glands and muscles of the internal organs Sympathetic nervous system: the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body Parasympathetic nervous system: the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body Reflex: a simple, automatic response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response Endocrine system: the body's 'slow' chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream Hormones: chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream and affect other tissues Adrenal glands: a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones that help arouse the body in times of stress (cortisol, epinephrine) Pituitary gland: the endocrine system's most influential gland and it is under the influence of the hypothalamus. It regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands MODULE 5 Lesion: tissue destruction Electroencephalogram (EEG): an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp PET (position emission tomography) scan: a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images of soft tissue. It shows brain anatomy fMRI (functional MRI): a technique for revealing blood flow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. It shows brain function Brainstem: the oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull. It is responsible for automatic survival functions Medulla: the base of the brain
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