PSYC 1010 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Emotional Expression, Temporal Lobe, Medulla Oblongata

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Published on 13 Sep 2018
School
York University
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1010
Professor
Formation of identity
Freud: 5 Psychosexual development
o Oral stage (0-1 yrs.): Putting objects in mouth
Fixated adult: excessive dependency
o Anal Stage (1-3 yrs.): Elimination and retention of waste material
Toilet training
Fixated adult: excessive orderliness or sloppiness
o Phallic/Oedipal stage (3-5 yrs.): Male child wants to get rid of dad and keep mom
for himself but feels guilty about it
Deals with it by establishing his sexual identity, internalizing moral values
Sublimates his libidinal energy by collecting objects and focusing on
school work
Girls exhibit less stereotypical female behavior
o Latency (5-puberty): lasts until puberty
o Genital stage (puberty-adulthood): If previous stages were successful the person
will enter normal heterosexual relationships
If not behavior such as homosexuality, asexuality, or fetishism may occur
Erikson:8 stages of psychosocial development
o Trust vs mistrust (0-1 yrs.): Can I trust the world?
Mistrust=becomes suspicious of the world
o Autonomy vs shame and doubt (1-3 yrs.): Is it ok to be me?
o Initiative vs guilt (3-6 yrs.): Is it ok for me to do, move, and act?
Guilt=child overcome by fear of punishment that child may restrict
himself or overcompensate by showing off
o Industry vs inferiority (6-12): Can I make it in the world of people and things?
Inferiority=inability to act in competent manner and low self esteem
o Identity vs role confusion (12-20 yrs.): Who am I? What can I be?
Psychological revolution
o Intimacy vs isolation (20-40 yrs.): Can I love?
o Generativity vs stagnation (40-65 yrs.): Can I make my life count?
Stagnation: self indulgent, bored, self centred, with little care for others
o Inter gritty vs despair (above 65): Is it ok to have been me?
Despair: bitterness about life
Kohlberg's moral reasoning
o Preconventional morality: Preadolescence
1. Obedience: Avoiding punishment
2. Self interest: Gaining rewards
o Conventional morality: Adolescence to adulthood
3. Conformity: Seeks approval of others
4. Law and order: Maintain social order in the highest regard
o Postconventional morality: adulthood (if at all)
5.Social Contract: Moral rules designed to ensure the greater good
(reasoning focused on individual rights)
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6. Universal human ethics: Decision should be made in consideration of
abstract principles>It is wrong for one person to hold another’s life for
ransom
Lev Vygotsky: Cultural and biosocial development
o Focus on understanding cognitive development
o Childs internalization of various aspects of cultural rules, symbols and language
o Zone of proximal development: skills and abilities that have not yet fully
developed but are in the process of development
o Theory of mind: being able to tell what another is thinking
o Looking-glass self: reflecting ourselves back to ourselves
Self-Perception and Interacting with others
Self Presentation: Process of displaying oneself to society through culturally accepted
behavior
o People use specific strategies to shape what others will think of them
Expressed emotions include both verbal and nonverbal behavior>can express
emotions with or without conscious awareness
Basic Model of Emotional expression: Charles Darwin; expression consistent with
evolution and it is similar across cultures
Appraisal Model: Accepts that there are biologically predetermined expressions once an
emotion is experienced, but there is a cognitive antecedent to emotional expansion
Social construction model: No biological basis for emotions
o It’s based on experiences ad situational context alone
o Certain emotions can only exist whiting social encounters and they are expressed
differently +play different roles across cultures
Display Rules: Cultural expectations of emotions
Cultural syndrome: Shared set of beliefs, attitudes, norms, values, and behaviours
among members of the same culture>influences the rules for expressing or
suppressing emotions+how emotions are experienced
Impression management: Attempts to influence how others perceive us; done through
the regulation or controlling of info in social interactions
o Authentic Self: who the person actually is>positive and negative attributes
o Ideal self: who we would like to be under optimal circumstances
o Tactical self: who we market our selves to be when we adhere to others
expectations of us.
Goffman’s Theory of dramaturgical: individuals sense of self and self presentation
changes depending on the situvation
o Front Stage: where the actor is in front of audience, and performs according to
setting, role, script, to conform to the role her wants others to see
o Back Stage: Actor is not observed by audience and is free to act in ways that may
not go with his public image, doesn’t have to worry about running his
performance
o ME: self that is a response to the env >going to school and studying hard
o I: creative expression of the individual—>deciding that studying isn’t the only
way towards the goal and choosing an alternative approach
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Document Summary

Formation of identity: freud: 5 psychosexual development, oral stage (0-1 yrs. ): putting objects in mouth: fixated adult: excessive dependency, anal stage (1-3 yrs. ): elimination and retention of waste material: toilet training, fixated adult: excessive orderliness or sloppiness, phallic/oedipal stage (3-5 yrs. If not behavior such as homosexuality, asexuality, or fetishism may occur: erikson:8 stages of psychosocial development, trust vs mistrust (0-1 yrs. ): can i trust the world: mistrust=becomes suspicious of the world, autonomy vs shame and doubt (1-3 yrs. ): is it ok for me to do, move, and act: guilt=child overcome by fear of punishment that child may restrict himself or overcompensate by showing off. Inferiority=inability to act in competent manner and low self esteem. ): can i love: generativity vs stagnation (40-65 yrs. ): can i make my life count: stagnation: self indulgent, bored, self centred, with little care for others.

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