Review Package 4
Stephanie Cargnelli | [email protected]
Somayya Saleemi| [email protected]
1 York SOS Preface
This document was created by the York University chapter of Students Offering
Support (York SOS) to accompany our PSYC 1010 Exam-AID session. It is
intended for students enrolled in any section of Dr. Jubis 2010/2011 PSYC 1010
course who are looking for an additional resource to assist their studies in
preparation for the exam.
Weiten, W., & McCann, D. (2010). Psychology: Themes and variations (2nd
Canadian ed.). Toronto, ON: Nelson.
Tips for General Midterm Success | page 3
Chapter 14: Human Memory | page 4
Chapter 15: Language and Thought | page 21
Chapter 4: Intelligence and Psychological Testing | page 31
Chapter 13: Motivation and Emotion | page 44
What is Students Offering Support?
Students Offering Support is a national network of student volunteers working
together to raise funds to raise the quality of education and life for those in
developing nations through raising marks of our fellow University students.
This is accomplished through our Exam-AID initiative where student volunteers
run group review sessions prior to a midterm or final exam for a $20 donation.
All of the money raised through SOS Exam-AIDs is funneled directly into
sustainable educational projects in developing nations. Not only does SOS fund
these projects, but SOS volunteers help build the projects on annual volunteer
trips coordinated by each University chapter.
2 York SOS Tips for General Midterm Success
Use mnemonics to remember concepts better. An example of a mnemonic
would be acronyms. For instance, knowing the word ocean can help you
remember the Big Five personality traits: openness to experience,
conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism.
Do practice multiple choice questions. Doing these practice questions can
assess your understanding of what youve learned and can help you identify
areas of weakness. Practice multiple choice questions are found in textbooks, on
textbook companion websites, and/or provided by your professor. Psychology:
Themes and Variations has practice questions in it and on its online companion
Read a multiple choice question and try to answer it BEFORE looking at the
possible answers. Having an answer in mind before looking at possible
answers can reduce the chances of being fooled by wrong answers.
Use logic and process of elimination on multiple choice questions. For
example, if you know that answer A is wrong, then logically an answer A and B
are correct in the same question must also be incorrect. When you dont know
the answer, eliminating wrong answers (as opposed to just random guessing)
can increase your chances of getting the question right.
Practice writing answers to short answer questions. If you know ahead of
time what the questions will be on the short answer section, make a list of
essential points you want to include in each answer and practice writing the
answer on paper. If you dont know what questions will be on the short answer
section, you could try scanning the material to identify concepts that have
enough content to be a possible short answer question. Again, you can make a
list of essential points you want to include in each answer and practice writing the
answer on paper. Even if the question you thought of doesnt show up on the
short answer section, doing this can help solidify what you learned.
Dont spend too much time on a difficult question. It is better to move onto
easier questions to ensure getting those marks than to get hung up on a difficult
question, especially when time is limited.
Get adequate sleep the night before your test. Sleeping at night helps
consolidate what you learned during the day into memory so that it is better
remembered in future. Not only does staying up late the night before a test
destroy your concentration during the test the next day, but your brain has not
effectively learned the material.
3 York SOS Chapter 14: Psychological Disorders
Abnormal Behaviour: Myths, Realities and Controversies
The Medical Model Applied to Abnormal Behaviour
- old way of thinking: superstition
o abnormal people possessed by demons, affiliated with the demon
or being punished by God
o treatment: chants, rituals, exorcisms, etc.
- medical model: useful to conceptualize abnormal behaviour as a disease
o dominant way of thinking since 18 and 19 century
- early asylum conditions were deplorable, but gradually became more
- Thomas Szasz is opposed to medical model:
o illness only affects body and not the mind
o abnormal behaviour is a deviation from social norms and not an
- regardless of debate, medical model has been effective in treating and
- diagnosis: distinguishing one illness from another
- etiology: apparent causation and developmental history of an illness
- prognosis: forecast about the probable course of an illness
Criteria of Abnormal Behaviour
- deviance: behaviour deviates from social norms (varies culture to culture)
o ex. transvestic festishism: man achieves sexual arousal by dressing
in womens clothing
- maladaptive behaviour: everyday adaptive behaviour is impaired
o usually something that interferes with social or occupational
functioning, like substance-use disorders
- personal distress: subjective distress
o ex. depressed people, who may not emit deviance or maladaptive
- people often viewed as disordered if they are extreme in 1 of the 3 above
- therefore: diagnosis hinges on value judgments
- abnormal-normal exists on a continuum
Stereotypes of Psychological Disorders
- psychological disorders are incurable
o truth: vast majority of mentally ill improve and lead normal,
productive lives (even those with more severe psychological
- people with psychological disorders are often violent and dangerous
o truth: most predictive factor of violence is past violence, no
consistent evidence that psychological disorder is
4 York SOS