Chapter 10: Motivation and Emotion
Motivation: goaldirected behaviour.
Homeostasis is a state of physiological equilibrium or stability to behaviour.
Drive: is an internal state of tension that motivates an organism to engage in activities that should reduce
this tension. (disruptions of equilibrium)
Incentive: an external goal that has the capacity to motivate behaviour
Drive and incentive models of motivation are often contrasted as pushversuspull theories.
Drive theories individuals experience drive motivated to pursue actions that lead to drive reduction
(cannot explain all motivation, i.e. homeostasis not always relevant). Drive emphasizes how internal states
of tension (motivation lies within) push people in certain directions.
Incentive theories emphasize how external stimuli (motivation lies outside in the environment) pull
people in certain directions.
Expectancyvalue models are incentive theories that take the reality that people cannot always attain goals.
One’s motivation will depend on two factors:
1) expectancy about one’s chances of attaining the incentive
2) value of the desired incentive
Expectancy X value models: expect and believe that you can get what you want (potential) effort>
performance; you will produce corresponding behaviours (motivation) performance>outcome.
Needs Theory (WHAT) Process Theory (HOW)
Evolutionary perspective affiliation, achievement, dominance, aggression and sex drive as adaptive.
Based on the premise that motives are best understood in terms of the adaptive problems they solved for
our ancestors to optimize survival.
need for dominance greater in men than women, facilitate male’s reproductive success in many ways
1) females prefer mating with dominant males
2) dominant males may poach females from subordinate males
3) dominant males may intimidate male rivals in competition for sexual access
4)dominant males acquire more material resources which increase mating opportunities.
Sexual desire hormonal regulation: relative balance of androgens (linked to sexual desire in both sexes)
and estrogens. Testosterone injections can revive sexual desire. Hypogonadism: leads to low levels of
androgens and reduced sexual motivation. Sex offenders drugs that lower testosterone levels seem to
reduce sexual interest.
Pheromones: certain hormones in the sweat in the environment and the glands affect behaviour. May be
responsible for menstrual sync(Sweat on tshirt studies).
The Coolige effect: novel stimuli triggers interest
Bus parental investment theory: women vs. men reproducing. Women choose men that have resources.
Wickler: Bristleworm segmented worms starts life as a male and stays male till it has twenty segments, if
you cut it in half they both become male. Two females together one of them changes into a male
(situational factors determine biology).
Money: Imprinting and critical periods early points in adolescence that they mimic
Tiger: Male’s exclusive groups males through evolution develop the tendency to form exclusive groups
(effective in hunting) where women are responsible for childbearing. Due to this fact males do the main
tasks of civilization that’s why women lack power.
Anthropologist Margaret Mead studied male and female behaviour (tribes). Arapesh similar males and
females (nurturing, gentle, cooperative), Mundugumor (considered like males, sexually aggressive),
Tschabuli (males adorn themselves, decorative aspects, while women did the fishing, hunting and
building). Argument our culture determines how we act as male and female. Extreme cultural determinism and
changed when she found one universal biological trait everything men did were considered more
important because women can bear children they get out of this competition.
Parsons and Bales: functional social psychologist, found within short periods of time with group, people
emerge as a leader either task (instrumental leader), socialemotional (integrative leader). Women are
good at being nurturing men takes the other role.
Friedan “The Feminist Mystique” women define themselves in terms of their relationships. Invested
interest in fashion companies and makeup.
Millet “Sexual Politics” literature supported males position in society and sexuality putting women
Cognitive Development approach: boys and girls treated differently from birth, modeling, internalizes
standards of behaviour, labeling, acting appropriate to label.
Affiliation motive: need for belongingness (motives=theories)
most theories distinguish biological and social motives (*except evolutionary theories)
motives studied the most: hunger, sex and achievement.
Cannon theorized stomach contractions cause hunger. (correlation does not prove causation, he was
discredited). Research has shown that subjects with stomach removed out of medical necessity (hunting
accident) have experienced hunger.
Hypothalamus: responsible for biological needs and several survival related functions, including hunger
(also structure attached to the pituitary gland)
1940s electrical stimulation research indicated lateral hypothalamus and ventromedial nucleus of the
hypothalamus were on and off switches for hunger.
New empirical research has undermined dualcentres model. Current proof that the lateral and
ventromedial are elements in the neural circuitry that regulates hunger. However there are not the key
elements nor simple onoff centres. Today, scientists believe that two other areas of the hypothalamus the
arcuate nucleus and the paraventricular nucleus play a larger role in the modulation of hunger.
Sensitive to incoming messages from the body.
Contemporary theories of hunger focus on neural circuits (including neurotransmitters) that pass
through areas of the hypothalamus rather than on anatomical centres in the brain.
Glucose is a simple sugar that is an important source of energy.
actions that decrease blood glucose can increase hunger
actions that increase glucose can make people feel satisfied.
Glucostatic theory: proposed that fluctuations in blood glucose level are monitored were correlated with
hunger. Glucostats neurons snesnitive to glucose in surrounding fluid. Later discredited.
*Emphasized the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus is sensitive to glucose fluctuations that contribute
to the modulation of eating.
Canon was not entirely wrong, cells in the stomach can send signals to the brainstem that inhibit further
eating. Example: vagus nerve caries information about the stretching of stomach walls when stomach is
full. Disruption eat very slowly in small quantities
BASIC HORMONES INVOLVED WITH HUNGER: Insulin hormone secreted by the pancreas. Must be present in cells for extraction of glucose from the
blood. Inadequate supply causes diabetes. Secretion of insulin is associated with increased hunger (seeing
food can produce insulin). Insulin is also sensitive to fluctuations in the bod’s fat.
Ghrelin: hormone secreted after not eating, causes stomach contractions and produces hunger.
CCK: hormone that reduces hunger, delivers satiety signals to the brain.
Leptin: new research, hormone that plays numerous regulations. Produced by fat cells throughout the body
and released into the bloodstream. Higher fat generate higher leptin. The hormone provides the
hypothalamus information of the bod’s fat stores, when leptin levels are high hunger diminishes.
Environmental factors play a role as well 1) availability for food 2) learned preferences and habits 3)
Goldberg study: with children overall cookie consumption is positively correlated with advertisements
classical conditioning (food for rainy camping day= grilled cheese), observational learning (beer &
drinking, typical food of culture)
Kurt Lewin social psychologist, school of Gestalt (hole is greater than the sum of its parts), easier to
influence a group of eating habits, influenced people to eat visceral meats to the rest will be sold to
soldiers. Measures of each kind of meat from grocery stores, then gave presentation some independent
variable being a lecture health benefits and war effort and the other condition asks a bunch of participation
questions to get them to do the talking (more change!= new norms in bigger groups)
vegetarian, Siliac’s disease (glutanfree)
Palatability: the better food taste, the more people wish to consume it. (Humans and rats)
Quantity available: powerful determinant of amount eaten is the amount available. People tend to
consume what is in front of them; more served more eaten.
Sachter and Singer experiment: studied how situational factors influence food consumption. Manipulated
time of day gave obese and normal people sandwhich (with obese people not cultural norm to eat didn’t
eat as much).
Variety: humans and animals increase consumption when a greater variety of food is available. As you eat
a specific food its incentive value declines
= “sensoryspecific theory”: few foods available the value can decline quickly, more available people
keep shifting to new foods and eat more overall.
Presence of others: individuals eat more when others are present
noisey and busy= eat & drink more
Stress: (i.e. freshman fifteen) stress leads to increased eating in a substantial portion of people,
expectation of enjoyable food making them feel better.
Obesity: the condition of being overweight.
Canada 10% lower population of obese people than US
more vulnerable to cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, hypertension, respiratory problems, gallbladder,
disease, stroke arthritis, muscle and skeletal pain, and some types of cancer.
overweight people have a higher energy intake from food that exceeds energy expenditure in activities
and resting metabolic processes.
Evolutionaryoriented research: points out over the course of history most animals lived in fierce
competition for limited food resources, now warmblooded foraging animals evolved a propensity to
consume more food than immediately necessary.
Genetic predisposition: adults raised by adoptive parents were compared with biological and adoptive
parents body mass index. Adoptees resembled their biological parents. Twin study found that identical
twins reared apparent were far more similar BMI than fraternal twins reared together.= People can inherit
a vulnerability to obesity.
Moderately overweight (BMI 2529.9) mortality rates are not elevated. Improvements in treatment of
diseases have neutralized much of the danger. Body mass index (BMI) which is an individual’s weight (in kilograms) divided by height (in metres)
Externality hypothesis: by Stanely Schacter obese people are hypersensitive to external cues that affect
hunger and are relatively insensitive to internal physiological signals, whereas the eating of normalweight
individuals I regulated by internal signals. He manipulated the external variables showing that obese
people were influenced more strongly than normalweight subjects.
many studies found inconsistent with the theory, Judith Rodin noted that sight, smell sound of external
signals can elicit insulin secretion that lead to increased hunger, thus blurring the key distinction between
internal and external hunger determinants. Not all overweight people are hypersensitive to external cues,
and not all normal people are insensitive
Herman introduced the distinction between normative cues indicators of socially appropriate food
intake what, when and how much one should eat and sensory cues characteristics of food itself, such as
Polivy obese people are not oblivious to physiological signals of hunger, the central thesis of externality
hypothesis still has merit,
Herman and Polivy argue that it is sensory external cues that obese people are especially sensitive to.
Setpoint theory: proposes that the body monitors fatcell levels to keep them (and weight) fairly stable.
This compensation apparently leads to increased hunger and decreased metabolism.
asserts that an obese person’s body will initiate processes that actively defend an excessive weight.
Settling point theory: proposes that weight tends to drift around the level at which the constellation of
factors that determine food consumption and energy expenditure achieves an equilibrium.
wider amount of factors and asserts that if an obese person makes longterm changes in eating or exercise
that person’s settling point will drift downward without active resistance.
Dietary restraint theory that chronic dieters are restrained eaters, people who consciously work overtime
to control their eating impulses and who feel guilty when they fail. They can go hungry much of the time
but are constantly thinking about food. When they loose control they become disinhibited and eat excess.
Anorexia nervosa disorder which mostly young women literally starve themselves, sometimes to death
Bulima nervosa: mostly young women alternate between binge eating and purging.
Masters and Johnson’s Sexual Response Cycle
EXCITATION increase physiological processes (ex, heartrate increase) Vasocongestion: engorgement
of blood vessels produce penile erection and swollen testicles in males and hardening of the clitoris,
expansion of the vaginal lips and vaginal lubrication.
PLATEAU physiological arousal continues to built at a slower pace. In women further vasocongestion=
tightening of vaginal entrance. Men secret a bit of fluid at the tip of penis (not ejaculation but may contain
sperm). This arousal may fluctuate (erections may decrease in size, and changes in vaginal lubrication).
ORGASM occurs when sexual arousal reaches its peak intensity. It discharges in a series of muscular
contractions that pulsate though the pelvic area. In males
RESOLUTION: refractory period: a time following orgasm during which males are largely unresponsive
to further stimulation.
Human Sexual Response
Masters and Johnson: experimented with people during sexual act. Premature ejaculation cure, failure
orgasm most sex problems result of misinformation about sex (negative or inappropriate attitudes), rarely
were problems of mental health or physiological problems, learn new way of responding to sexual activity.
Myths and Fallacies about Sex sex as a barometer of a good relationship. In the 20s (high rates of sexual response), early 30s and 40s
(sexual response drops), once 40s and above (sexual response rises again).
The myth of male’s sexual wisdom: men by divine guidance or instinct knows what women want.
Interferes with sexual communication.
The search for aphrodisiacs: (horn of rhinoceros, oysters, eggs, chicken soup etc.) Research proves there is
know known aphrodisiacs. Spanish fly (alcoholic drink) turns on women contains camporides which is an
irritant to urinary tract (itch), perceive feeling as sexual urge.
Penis Size: Most of the sexual organ is on the surface and the first third of the vaginal bowel the rest of the
inside is insensitive. Smallest penis can do the job although culture (sociallearning) glorifies larger penis.
Masturbation: historically related to blindness, acne, insanity (people in wards masturbate no control
Focus on orgasm: measure personal sexual adequacy, depth of relationship, perverting, interfering and
objectifying sex act. They talked bout stages, plateau stage (not going to answer your phone) leading up to
orgasm stage, 4 stage psychological climax (resolution stage). 67% fake orgasms, 28% of men fake
Trivers proposed sex that males the smaller investment will compete for mating opportunities with the se
that males the larger investment (more discriminating in selecting its partners).
ArgumentPornography may be correlated with sex crimes (correlation does not prove causation) but
those who are not sex offenders have also watched pornography.
Porn my alter attitudes that may influence sexual behaviour. Zilman and Bryant found that male and
female undergraduates exposed to a large dose of pornography developed more liberal attitudes towards
sexual practices (some viewed extramarital sex as more acceptable). Similarly Caroll found that
correlation between acceptance of pornography and more liberal attitudes towards casual sex. Hald and
Malamuth believed there was a correlation between pornography and increased satisfaction in sex lives.
Experiment: male subjects work on lab task and are led to falsely believe that they are delivering electric
shocks to other subjects, aggression towards females tends to be elevated after exposure to aggressive
Sexual orientation: refers to a person [reference for emotional and sexual relationships with individuals of
the same sex, the other sex or either sex.
Heterosexuals: seek emotionalsexual relationships with members of the other sex
Bisexuals: either sex
Homosexuals: same sex.
Jennifer Steeves examined some ways in which gays and heterosexuals differ in terms of processing the
coding of facial information
Freudian theorists: gay when raised by a weak detached ineffectual father and by an overproductive
closebinding mother whom the boy identifies with.
Behavioural theorists: homosexuality is a learnt preference acquired when samesex stimuli have been
paired with sexual arousal perhaps though chance seductions by other homosexuals.
Extensive research failed to support either theory,
genetics studies: hereditary bias. Experiment: subjects were gay men who either had a twin or adopted
brother. 52% of subjects’ identical twins were gay and 22% of fraternal twins were gay, and 11% of
adoptive brothers were gay.
many theorists suspect that roots of homosexuality lie in prenatal hormones effects on neurological
development. Hormonal secretions during critical periods of prenatal development may shape sexual development, organize the brain in a lasting matter and influence subsequent sexual orientation. For
example, elevated rates of lesbians exposed to unusually high androgen levels during prenatal
development (mothers having an adrenal disorder or were given a synthetic hormone to reduce risk of
Plasticity: ability for brain and behaviour to adapt= female’s sexuality can evolve and modify by social
The achievement motive: the need to master difficult challenges to outperform others and to meet high
standards of excellence. Depends on:
strength of one’s motivation to achieve success (stable aspect of personality)
One’s estimate of the probability of success for the task at hand. (varies by task)
the incentive value of success (the rewards)
Thematic Apperception Test: a projective test that requires subjects to respond to vague ambiguous stimuli
(in this case scenes open to interpretation) in ways that may reveal personal motives and traits. Subjects
tell stories or write about the scene and the character’s feelings. – can be used to measure subject’s needs
in reported themes (like achievement).
subjects who are higher achievers choose tasks with moderate difficulty.
According to Atkinson: a persons fear for failure may affect achievement behaviour, because people vary
in motivation to avoid failure. The motive is considered to be a stable aspect of personality, with
situational factors it influences achievement strivings.
*Emotion can cause motivation, and motivation can cause emotion.
Emotion: involves 1) subjective conscious experience (the cognitive component) accompanied by 2)
bodily arousal (the physiological component) and by 3) the characteristic overt expressions (the
Dictionary of Affect in Language: provide normative emotional ratings for the words we use.
emotion is highly personal and subjective (example some people are not easily embarrassed and some
are). Potentially intense internal feelings that sometimes are uncontrollable. In some cases these reactions
are below conscious level.
Cognitive appraisals are key determinants of emotional experience
Affective forecasting: efforts to predict one’s emotional reactions to future events. Research on this
phenomenon demonstrates that people mispredict their future feelings.
Autonomic arousal: fight or flight response (divisions sympathetic= excited [example: adrenal hormones
released], parasympathetic= at rest).
Galvanic skin response: an increase in electrical conductivity of the skin that occurs when the sweat
glands increase their activity.
Polygraph: or liedetector 8590% accurate: a device that records autonomic fluctuations while a subject is
questioned. It monitors key indicators of autonomic arousal: heart rate, blood pressure, respiration rate and
GSR. The assumption that when subject lie they experience emotion (ex. anxiety) that produces
physiological changes. Not entirely reliable in courtrooms.
The affective neuroscience: focuses research in examination of neurobiology of motions (constellation of
interacting brain centres)
Thalamus: executive assistant to cerebrum, sensory switchboard
Limbic system: seat of emotions= hippocampus, hypothalamus, and thalamus. Amygdala: central role in fear acquisition, stimulates sympathetic autonomic arousal. The amygdala lies
in a neural circuit. Emotions arrive at thalamus and route information in two separate pathways (nearby
amygdala (fast response) or slower pathway to areas in the cortex (cognitive appraisal)).
Prefrontal cortex: executive role in voluntarily control emotional reactions. Modulates emotions
associated with pursuit of goals
Cingulate cortex (front portion) implicated in processing pain related emotional distress. Activated when
people wrestle with emotionladen conflicts and choices
Mesolimbic dopamine pathway: plays a role in the experience of pleasurable emotions associated with
rewarding events. This circuit is activated by cocaine and other abused drugs.
Mirror neurons: activated by performing an action or seeing another perform the same action. Important
for experiencing empathy
People can easily and reliably identify 6 basic emotions: happiness, sadness anger, fear surprise and
disgust. This is crossculturally consistent.
Japanese encourage socially engaging emotions (friendliness, sympathy and guilt) more than North
Americans socially disengaging emotions (pride and anger)
People born blind still produce the same facial expression (biologically based)
Facial feedback hypothesis: asserts that facial muscles send signals to the brain that these signals help the
brain recognize the emotion that one is experiencing. Studies show that subjects instructed to mimic facial
expressions they do experience the emotions to some degree.
what you actively do, body language affects mood
Emotional efference: theory suggests change in temperature of blood going to the brain results in distinct
emptions. Thus, facial expression affects emotions, (example married couples tend to be more successful
when they mimic each others facial expressions showing empathy and understanding.
Display rules: norms that regulate the appropriate expression of emotions.
Cognitive behavior therapy (cup half full or half empty)
Normalization: how you subjectively understand your reaction, personal weakness or normal, challenge or
threat. Normal reaction to abnormal event
Carl Lange the conscious experience of emotion results from one’s perception of autonomic arousal.
The JamesLange theory: asserts the perception of visceral arousal leads to the conscious experience of
fear. (your scared because your pulse is racing)
different patterns of autonomic activation lead to the experience of different emotions
= first to research fight or flight response (adrenaline or epinephrine= fear), (epinephrine AND
norepinephrine= fight) norepinephrine= handle the world, deficiency= overwhelmed and depressed (like
Cannon and Bard theory: emotion occurs when the thalamus sends signals simultaneously to the cortex
(creating the conscious experience of emotion) and to the autonomic nervous system (creating visceral
no distinguishing biological state per emotion some are similar
Two factor theory: according to Schacter and Singer, emotion depends on two factors (1) autonomic
arousal and (2) cognitive interpretation of that arousal. When you experience arousal you search the
environment for an explanation.
This theory was used in the bridge experiment (arousal associate with attractive female confederate or
unsteady bridge) Experiment in health psych: Participants affect of a certain injection of a drug on a performance test
Epinephrine (positive mood or negative mood) depending on a confederate who pretended to feel euphoric
or anxious or misinformation about drug effects (confederate had no effect) and placebo salt water (no
change in mood) therefore only able to identify the emotion or effects with a physiological change.
2000 years earlier. Ovid gave pointers on how men could make women fell in love with them. Take her to
the roman collesium to see lions eat the Christians and she could interpret physiological arousal as love.
Late 60s drug induced psychosis based on LSD(similar to serotonin). Becker studied marijuana (archithl
research, records of hospital admissions following use of weed) found in the early part of the 20 century
there was a lot of emergency drug psychosis for marijuana and declined over the decades.
Evolutionary theories: consider emotions to be largely innate reactions to certain stimuli. Emotion evolve
before thought. Emotions originate in subcortical brain structures that evolved before higher brain areas in
the cortex associated with complex thought.
Subjective wellbeing: individuals personal perceptions of their overall happiness and life satisfaction.
(not associated with money, age, parent hood, intelligence and attractiveness). Good predictors of happiess
include: health social activity, religion (modestly correlated). Strong predictors of happiness include love
and marriage, work, genetics and personality.
Objective realities are not as important as subjective feelings
Hedonic adaption: occurs when the mental scale that people use to judge the pleasantnessunpleasantness
of their experiences shifts so that their neutral point (or baseline) for comparison changes
hedonic treadmill their neutral point moves upwards so that improvements yield no benefits
hedonic adaption is not inevitable or complete, people take longer to adapt to negative situations
An argument: consists of one or more premises that are used to provide support for a conclusion.
Premises: are reasons that are presented to persuade someone that a conclusion is true or probably true
Assumptions are premises for which no proof or evidence is offered.
• Common fallacies in arguments
Non sequitur: latin for “it does not follow” irrelevant reasons.
Circular reasoning: the premise and conclusion are simple restatement of each other.
Slippery slope: argumentation that asserts that if you allow X to happen things will spin out of control and
events will follow. The trick is that there is no inherent connection to X and the events that will follow.
(ex. weed shouldn’t be legal because next thing you know heroin and cocaine will be legal)
Weak analogy: an analogy asserts that two concepts or events are similar in some way. Analogies are
useful in thinking about complex issues but the inappropriate analogies show superficial, minimal or
False dichotomy: creates an eitheror choice of outcomes. (ex. we can band porn or hasten the moral decay
of modern society)
Chapter 11: Human Development across the Life Span
Development: the sequence of agerelated changes that occur as a person progresses from conception to
death. transition and continuity
life span divided into four broad periods: prenatal period (conception and birth), childhood, adolescence
zygote: onecelled organism formed by the union of a sperm and an egg
each cell has information from parents in chromosomes which are contained in the nucleus. Each
chromosome has many genes which are the functional units of hereditary transmission.
The prenatal period: extends from conception to birth usually encompassing nine months of pregnancy. This phase is divided into three phases: germinal stage, embryonic stage and fetal stage
The germinal stage: first phase of prenatal development (first two weeks after conception)
36 hours fast cell division, zygote becomes microscopic mass of multiplying cells. The mass migrates
along the fallopian tube to the uterine cavity; by the 7 day the cell mass implants itself in the uterine wall
(which takes another week). Many zygotes are rejected (many women are unaware that conception
The placenta is a structure that allows oxygen and nutrients to pass into the fetus from the mother’s
bloodstream and bodily wastes to pass out to the mother. This occurs within thin membranes separating
mother’s bloodstream from the fetus.
The embryonic stage: the second stage of prenatal development, from two weeks until the end of second
the vital organs and systems form in the developing organism (now called embryo), human features are
developing (arms,legs,hands feet fingers, toes, eyes and ears). All physiological structures are formed, any
interference causes detrimental effects.
The fetal stage: the third stage of prenatal development, lasting fro two months through birth.
rapid bodily growth, muscles and bones form. Developing organisms now called a fetus, capable of
physical movement, organs continue to develop. In the final three months brain cells multiply quickly,
layer of fat deposited under the skin insulates, all systems mature.
The age of viability: the age which a baby can survive in the event of a premature birth (between 22 and
26 weeks). 23 weeks survival chances are slim and increase to 75% at 26 weeks.
Teratogens: external agents such as drugs or viruses that can harm an embryo or fetus.
all recreational drugs can be harmful (sedatives, narcotics and cocaine are most dangerous). Babies of
heroin users are born addicted to narcotics and have risk of early death due to prematurity, birth defects,
respiratory difficulties and problems associated with their addiction
Prenatal exposure to cocaine= increase risk of birth complications, cognitive deficits apparent in
Peter Fried research: marijuana exposure associated with a variety of physical and cognitive effects. May
be linked to disturbances in executive functioning (prefrontal cortex at age 3) causing problems with
attention, impulsivity, and problemsolving.
Fetal alcohol syndrome: collection of genital problems associated with excessive alcohol use during
pregnancy. (typical ex.: microephaly (small head), heart defects, irritability, hyperactivity and delayed
mental and motor development. Most common cause of intellectual instability (can cause poor grades,
depression, suicide, drug problems and criminal behaviour in adolescence and later) Studies show: even
moderate drinking= effects.
Tobacco use: miscarriage, stillbirth, and prematurity and new borns’ risk for sudden infant death
syndrome. Also slower average cognitive development, attention deficits, hyperactivity, and conduct
problems *could be a casual correlation does not prove causation.
Genital herpes and acquired immune deficiency (AIDS) also HIV that causes aids are deadly diseases that
can transmit to offspring during the birth process.
Herpes newborns exposure to genital lesions can cause microcephaly, paralysis, deafness, blindness and
brian damage to newborns.
AIDS transferred through placenta, delivery or breastfeeding. – Improved antiretroviral drugs and
cautions reduced 2% of transmission of 2030% transferring HIV.
Prenatal exposure to pollution, cognitive development impairment at age 5. Exposure to chemicals in
flameretardant materials correlates with problems with mental and physical development until age6.
Motor development: the progression of muscular coordination required for physical activity
Proximdistal trend: the centreoutward direction of motor development. Example: using arms to propel
forward to moving legs, using torso to turn.
cephalocaudal trend: head to foot direction (from mouth) Maturation: development that reflects the gradual unfolding of one’s genetic blueprint. Infants do not wait
for physiological development, they are active agents in the development.
Developmental norms: indicate the median age at which individuals display various behaviours and
abilities. = group averages.
Temperament: characteristic mood, activity level and emotional reactivity.
easy children, slowtowarmup, difficult children, & mixture
Longitudinal design: investigators observe one group of participants repeatedly over a period of time
Inhibited temperament: shyness, timidity and wariness of unfamiliar people (20% 20% uninhibited
temperament: less restrained, no trepidation.
Crosssectional design: investigators compare groups of participants of differing age ata signle point in
time. Quicker, easier and cheaper than longitudinal studies. More sensitive to developmental changes,
although participants can lose interest thus changing sample.
Cohort effects: occur when differences between age groups are due to the groups growing up in different
Attachment: refers to the close emotional affection bonds that develop between infants and caregivers.
Separation anxiety: emotional distress seen in many infants when they are separated from people whom
they form attachment.
Strange situation procedure: in which infants are exposed to series of eight separation and reunion
episodes to asses the quality of their attachment
Ainsworth research: Most infants form secure attachment.
Anxious –ambivalent attachment; anxious when their mother is near and protest when she leaves but no
comfort in her return.
Avoidant attachment: children seek little contact with mother and not distressed when she leaves
Disorganizeddisoriented attachment: confused about whether they should approach or avoid mother,
they are especially insecure.
Internal working models: dynamics of close relationships that influence future relationships. Typically
preschool; persistence, curiosity, selfreliance, and leadership have better relations,
Middle childhood: positive moods, healthier strategies for coping with stress and few problems with
A stage: developmental period during which characteristic patterns of behaviour are exhibited and certain
capacities become establish.
** Stage theorists assume: individuals must progress through the stage in a particular order because each
stage builds on the previous, progression through stages is strongly related to age, development is marked
by major discontinuities that usher in dramatic transitions in behaviour.
Erikson’s stage theory: lifespan in eight stages: each bringing a psychosocial crisis in developing
important relationships exhibiting personality. Each stage was a balance between polarities in personality.
Trust versus mistrust (basic needs even hygenic are met as an infant by the caregiver), Autonomy
versus Shame and Doubt (ages 2 and 3, learning personal responsibility and sense of selfsufficiency),
initiative versus guilt (3 to six, conflict with parental style, goal is to attain initiative and respect),
industry versus inferiority (age six through puberty: more relations outside family).
accounts for both continuity and transition in development. Theory’s weakness is providing an idealized
description of typical developmental patterns not suited for explaining personality differences amongst
Piaget’s theory: founded cognitive development, created a stage theory of cognitive development:
sensorimotor stage (birth to age 2, preoperational period (ages 27), concrete operational period (711) and
formal operational period (age 11 onward). Sensorimotor period (STAGE 1): coordination and motor ability, innate reflexes change to suit child’s
Object permanence: when a child recognizes that object s continue to exist when they are no longer
visible. Symbolic thought not in the senses but in awareness.
Preoperational period (STAGE 2): simple problem: two identical beakers fill each with same amount of
wate., pour water from one beaker into a taller and thinner beaker. Typically in this children due to the
shape figured there is more water in one or the other beaker.
Conversation: Piaget’s term for awareness that physical quantities remain constant in spite of their
changes in their shape or appearance.
Centration: the tendency to focus on just one feature of a problem, neglecting other aspects.
Irreversibility: the inability to envision reversing an action.
Egocentrism: thinking is characterized by limited ability to share another’s viewpoint.
Animism: the belief that all things are living.
Concrete operational period (STAGE 3):
Reversibility: permits a child to undo an action
Decentration: allows the child to focus on more than one feature of a problem
Decline in egocentrism, able to identify items hierarchically.
Formal operational period (STAGE 4): apply operations to abstract concepts in addition to concrete
objects, hypothetical thoughts.
underestimated young children’s development, ex. object permanence earlier than he thought.
Like Erikson, he had little to say about individual differences in development.
research shown the sequence is largely invariant but the timetable varies across cultures.
Studied children’s wrong answers and how they used their intelligence.
Embryological parallelism: Hypothesis embryo to adult represent evolutionary stages.
Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory: postrevolution Soviet Union, had to devise a theory that would not be
incompatible with the co