Chapter 10: Motivation and Emotion
Theories of Emotion:
JamesLange Theory – Imagine you’re walking in the woods and walk into a bear. This
experience stimulates the whole body (your physiology) into a particular state of fear.
Therefore, his theory suggests that emotions occur as a result of physiological reactions
CannonBard Theory – The CannonBard Theory suggests that emotions cause
physiological reactions. Walter Cannon found holes in the previous theory. He said that it
doesn’t make sense for every single emotion to have a particular biological stage that
would correspond to every emotion (ex. joy vs fear vs perkiness) How can we notice the
difference? He came up with the fight or flight response. In this stage, we have high
adrenaline (epinephrine). He also found that when people were in a state of fighting, they
had norepinephrine (neurotransmitter) in their system – it is a drug that makes you feel
like you can handle the world. He still said that there are major motions like fight, fear,
anger but could there really be different physiological states for each?
Ovid, a Roman poet from 2000 years earlier hinted the start of these theories by giving
pointers on how to make women fall in love with men. He suggested that you take her to
an arena where Christians go against lions and fight. When she experiences a gore feeling
from watching, put your face in front of her so that it seems as though she is experiencing
this physiological arousal from you.
Role of Hormones:
TwoFactor Theory of Emotion:
Schachter and Singer (1962) tell subjects that they’re doing a study on the effect of a
certain drug on a performance task. Half of the participants are given epinephrine
(adrenaline) and half are given placebo. They stay in a room with a participant who
pretends to be drugged by acting really excited or frustrated.
Those who are uninformed about what drug it is see the pretender feeling good and start
feeling good. When he is angry, they start feeling angry. Those with placebo experience
no change. Those who are told the truth about the drug are not influenced by the
This concludes that how you feel depends on an internal and external factor: the
physiological change that happens due to the drug (internal) and the reactions you see
around you (external). Schachter and Singer say that there is an autonomic arousal aka
change (how you feel) and also cognitive interpretation of it (taking in other people’s
perspectives to determine yours). Howard Becker, an American sociologist, studied marijuana. He found that in the
beginning of the 20 century it got used more and more. This is the process of how it
Drug taken by a novice (an inexperienced user)–> led to a new experience –> led to
errors in action –> This could either result in anxiety attack or a normalized experience
based on what culture they are in. The older culture looks at it as “drug causes insanity”
or “crystallized underlying disorder”. The new drug culture names, explains, and talks
about the drug (normalizes the experience).
The Cognitive component (interpretation of experiences/emotions):
how we feel today depends on what you learn from your culture based on emotions.
Cognitive Behavioral Theory refers to how you perceive things (is the cup half full or
The Physiological Component:
Emotions accompanied by physiological reaction.
Lie Detector measures the level of arousal (how much perspiration the body makes, etc)
Affective Neuroscience (neuroscience of emotions):
Emotion depends on activity in a constellation of interacting brain centres. Ex.
Hypothalamus, amygdala, limbic system, prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, mesolimbic
dopamine pathway, left vs right hemispheres.
Thalamus sends information to the cortex and amygdala, which gets you to react quickly.
The prefrontal cortex processes the meaning of emotional events and voluntary control,
pursuit of goals. This sort of processing may be too slow to react to immediate danger.
• Part of fast pathway triggering neural activityàautonomic arousal hormonal
The Behavioral Component:
Facialfeedback hypothesis asserts that facial muscles send signals to the brain that help
brain recognize emotion that one is experiencing. When you run, smile ! By smiling, it
eases up the tension in your face and gets the brain to enjoy what you’re doing.
Hypothetical constructs – the why or cause of behavior
Goaldirected behavior – you are motivated to do something when you put a lot of effort
towards it PushPull Theory – Drive theories (push theories) involve our bodies pushing us into
Incentive Theories (Pull) – an external goal that has the capacity to motivate behavior aka
pull you. The other theory pushes your body whereas this theory pulls you in. Effort
Drive is an i