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Psychology
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PSYC 1010
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William Pietro
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1 CCNA 640-801 Exam Notes - Fundamentals of Switching CCNA 640-801 Exam Notes Fundamentals of Switching 1. LAN Segmentation 1.1 In a collision domain, a frame sent by a device can cause collision with a frame sent by another device in the same collision domain. Moreover, a device can hear the frames destined to any device in the same collisiondomain. 1.2 In a broadcast domain, a broadcast frame sent by a device can be received by all other devices in the same broadcast domain. 1.3 A LAN segment or an Ethernet network segment consists of the devices connected with a coaxial cable or a hub. The devices are in the same collision domain. 1.4 Ethernet congestion problem occurs when too many devices are connected to the same Ethernet network segment, such that the high network bandwidth utilization increases the possibility of collision, which causes degradation of network performance. 1.5 LAN segmentation solves the congestion problem by breaking the network into separate segments or collision domains using bridges, switches or routers (but not hubs or repeaters). LAN segmentation can reduce the number of collisions in the network and increase the total bandwidth of the network (e.g. 10 Mbps for one segment, 20 Mbps for two segments, 30 Mbps for three segments, and so on). 1.6 The 80/20 rule should be used when designing how to segment a network, i.e. 80% or more data traffic should be on the local network segment while 20% or less data traffic should cross network segments. 2. LAN Switching 2.1 LAN switching (or Layer 2 switching) consists of three major functions: Ÿ Address learning – learning the MAC addresses of the connected devices to build the bridge table. CCNA 640-801 Exam Notes - Fundamentals of Switching 2 Ÿ Forward and filter decision– forwarding and filtering frames based on the bridge table entries and the bridge logic. Ÿ Loop avoidance – avoiding network loop by using Spanning Tree Protocol. 2.2 A bridge or switch maintains a forwarding table (also known as bridge table or MAC address table) which maps destination physical addresses with the interfaces or ports to forward frames to the addresses. 2.3 A bridge or switch builds a bridge table by learning the MAC addresses of the connected devices. When a bridge is first powered on, the bridge table is empty. The bridge listens to the incoming frames and examines the source MAC addresses of the frames. For example, if there is an incoming frame with a particular source MAC address received from a particular interface, and the bridge does not have an entry in its table for the MAC address, an entry will be created to associate the MAC address with the interface. 2.4 The default aging time for an entry in a bridge table is 300 seconds (5 minutes). It means that an entry will be removed from the bridge table if the bridge has not heard any message from the concerned host for 5 minutes. 2.5 A bridge or switch forwards or filters a frame based on the following logic: 1. If the destination MAC address of the frame is the broadcast address (i.e. FFFF.FFFF.FFFF) or a multicast address, the frame is forwarded out all interfaces, except the interface at which the frame is received. 2. If the destination MAC address is an unicast address and there is no associated entry in the bridge table, the frame is forwarded out all interfaces, except the interface at which the frame is received. 3. If there is an entry for the destination MAC address in the bridge table, and the associated interface is not the interface at which the frame is received, the frame is forwarded out that interface only. 4. Otherwise, drop the frame. 2.6 There are three types of switching method: Ÿ Store-and-forward switching Ÿ The entire frame is received and the CRC is computed and verified before forwarding the frame. Ÿ If the frame is too short (i.e. less than 64 bytes including the CRC), too long (i.e. more than 1518 bytes including the CRC), or has CRC error, it will be discarded. Ÿ It has the lowest error rate but the longest latency for switching. However, for 3 CCNA 640-801 Exam Notes - Fundamentals of Switching high-speed network (e.g. Fast Ethernet or Gigabit Ethernet network), the latency is not significant. Ÿ It is the most commonly used switching method, and is supported by most switches. Ÿ Cut-through switching (also known as Fast Forward switching or Real Time switching) Ÿ A frame is forwarded as soon as the destination MAC address in the header has been received (i.e. the first 6 bytes following the preamble). Ÿ It has the highest error rate (because a frame is forwarded without verifying the CRC and confirming there is no collision) but the shortest latency for switching. Ÿ Fragment-freeswitching (also known as Modified Cut-through switching) Ÿ A frame is forwarded after the first 64 bytes of the frame have been received. Since a collision can be detected within the first 64 bytes of a frame (collision window size of Ethernet), fragment-free switching can detect a frame corrupted by a collision and drop it. Therefore, fragment-free switching provides better error checking than cut-through switching. Ÿ The error rate of fragment-free switching is above store-and-forward switching and belowcut-through switching. Ÿ The latency of fragment-free switching is shorter than store-and-forward switching and longer than cut-through switching. 2.7 Bridges only support store-and-forward switching. Most new switch models also use store-and-forward switching. However, it should be noted that Cisco 1900 switches use fragment-free switching by default. 3. Spanning Tree 3.1 In a switched network with redundant paths (i.e. with loops), the following problems will occur: Ÿ Broadcast Storm– A broadcast or multicast frame will be forwarded by a switch out all its active ports except the source port. The resulted frames will then be forwarded by the other switches in the network similarly. Some of the frames will be forwarded around the network loop and back to the original switch. The process then repeats. Therefore, the frames will loop indefinitely in the network and eventually exhaust the processing power of the switches and the bandwidth ofthe network. Ÿ Receiving multiple copies of a frame – When a switch receives an unicast frame to a destination device that it does not have an entry in its bridge table, it will forward CCNA 640-801 Exam Notes - Fundamentals of Switching 4 the frame out all its active ports except the source port. Therefore, the destination device may receive multiple copies of the frame through the redundant links. Ÿ Bridge Table Thrashing – A switch may receive frames from a source device at more than one ports if there are redundant links. It needs to update its bridge table whenever a frame from the source device arrives at a port differs from the last time. If the arrival frequency of such frames is high, the processing power of the switch will be exhausted. Spanning Tree Protocol Basics 3.2 Spanning Tree Protocolor STP (IEEE 802.1d) is used to solve the looping problem. It runs on bridges and switches in a network. It implements a Spanning Tree Algorithm (STA), which calculates a loop-free topology for the network. 3.3 STP ensures that there is only one active path between any two network segments by blocking the redundant paths. A redundant path is used only when the corresponding active path failed. It is not used for load-balancing. 3.4 Because STP solves the looping problem by blocking one or more links in a network, the frames traveling between some source / destination devices may not be able to use the shortest physical path. 3.5 Bridges exchange STP information using messages called Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs) through Layer 2 multicast. 3.6 A port of a bridge running STP can be in one of the following 5 states: State Handling of Learning MAC Handling of BPDUs addresses frames Disabled(administratively down) Does not receive Does not learn Discards frames BPDUs addresses received Blocking (default state when a Receives Does not learn Discards frames bridge is powered on) BPDUs addresses received Listening (a blocking port goes Receives and Does not learn Discards frames through this state before entering forwards addresses received the learning state) BPDUs Learning (a listening port goes Receives and Learns addresses Discards frames through this state before entering forwards received the forwarding state) BPDUs Forwarding (all ports in the Receives and Learns addresses Receives and forwarding state belong to the forwards forwards frames 5 CCNA 640-801 Exam Notes - Fundamentals of Switching current spanning tree) BPDUs By default, the transition fromthe blocking state to the listening state takes 20 seconds (MaxAge time), from the listening state to the learning state takes 15 seconds (FwdDlay time), and from the listening state to the forwarding state takes another 15 seconds (FwdDlay time). The whole process takes 50 seconds. 3.7 In a network without any network topology change, all bridge ports should be either in the forwarding state or the blocking state. When there is a change in the status of a port (e.g. a port is brought up), the spanning tree topology may change and some ports may transit from the blocking state to the forwarding state (through the listening state and the learning state) or vice versa. 3.8 Convergence refers to the condition that all bridge ports in a network have transitioned to either the forwarding state or the blocking state after a network topology change. 3.9 Aspanning tree consists of a root bridge, which likes the root of a living tree. There is only one root bridge in the whole switched network. There is a single path from the root bridge (root) to each network segment (leaf). The paths form the spanning tree of the network. The bridges place the interfaces on the spanning tree in the forwarding state, and the interfaces not on the spanning tree in the blocking state. 3.10 Each bridge has an 8-byte Bridge ID, which is the concatenation of the priority (2-byte) and the MAC address (6 byte) of the bridge. The default priority of a device is 32,768. 3.11 The bridge with the lowest bridge ID is elected as the root bridge. 3.12 The root path costof a bridge (i.e. cost of the path from the bridge to the root bridge) is the accumulated cost of the links along the root path. The cost of a link is determined by its bandwidth. The following default costs are used for different types of links: Link Speed New IEEE Cost Original IEEE Cost 10Gbps 2 1 1Gbps 4 1 100Mbps 19 10 10Mbps 100 100 3.13 In a spanning tree, the ports of a non-root bridge can be classified as follows: Ÿ Root port – The root port of a bridge is the port that is the closest to the root bridge in terms of path cost. The path cost can be calculated based on the information stored in the BPDUs sent by the root bridge (to be explained later in this Section). CCNA 640-801 Exam Notes - Fundamentals of Switching 6 Ÿ Designated port – For each physical network segment, the bridge with the lowest cost to the root bridge is elected as the designated bridge of that segment. If two or more bridges have the same cost to the root bridge, the bridge with the lowest bridge ID is elected. The designated bridge puts the port connected to that segment in the forwarding state. This port is known as a designated port. For those segments that are directly connected to the root bridge, the root bridge is their designated bridge. 3.14 In determining which is the root port of a non-root bridge, if there are two or more ports with equal root path cost, the following factors are used as the tiebreaker in sequence: Ÿ Sender Bridge ID, i.e. the bridge ID of the next bridge in the path to the root bridge (the lowest one is preferred). Ÿ Sender Port ID (the lowest one is preferred). 3.15 The Port ID of a port is 2 bytes long, and is the concatenation of the port priority (1-byte) and the physical port number(1 byte). 3.16 Other than the ports of the root bridge, the root port of each non-root bridge, and the designated port of each LAN segment, all ports in the network are put in the blocking state. BPDU & STP Logic 3.17 There are two types of BPDUs. They are: Ÿ Configuration BPDU Ÿ Topology Change Notification(TCN) BPDU 3.18 The root bridge sends a Configuration BPDU(or Hello BPDU) out each interface periodically (every 2 seconds, by default). Each bridge forwards the BPDU to the other bridges downstream after updating several fields in the BPDU, including the cost from this bridge to the root bridge. As long as such BPDUs are received periodically, a bridge knows that the path to the root bridge is still working. Otherwise, it needs to update its spanning tree. 3.19 AConfiguration BPDU is 35 bytes long and contains the following information: Ÿ Protocol ID (2 bytes) and Version(1 byte). Ÿ Message type (1 byte) – Configuration BPDU or TCN BPDU. Ÿ Flag (1 byte) – It contains a topology change (TC) bit and a topology change acknowledgement (TCA) bit. 7 CCNA 640-801 Exam Notes - Fundamentals of Switching Ÿ Root bridge ID (8 bytes) – Bridge ID of the root bridge. Ÿ Root path cost(4 bytes) – Cost of the path from the sender bridge (the bridge forwarding the BPDU) to the root bridge. Ÿ Sender bridge ID (8 bytes). Ÿ Port ID (2 bytes) of the port forwarding the BPDU. Ÿ MessageAge (2 bytes) in 1/256 second. Ÿ The time elapsed since the root bridge sent the original BPDU that this BPDU is based on. Ÿ Hello time (2 bytes) in 1/256 second. Ÿ The time interval between BPDUs are sent from the root bridge. Ÿ The default Hello interval is 2 seconds. Ÿ MaxAge time (2 bytes) in 1/256 second. Ÿ If a new BPDU is not received before the MaxAge timer expires, the BPDU information is considered invalid and the bridge will try to update the STP topology. Ÿ In other words, it is the time interval required for a port (on the alternate path) to transit from the blocking state to the listening state. Ÿ The default MaxAge is 20 seconds. Ÿ Forward Delay time (fwddlay) (2 bytes) in 1/256 second. Ÿ The time interval for a port to move from the listening state to the learning state. It is also the time interval for a port to move from the learning state to the forwarding state. Ÿ The time interval for moving from the listening state to the learning state allows for re-election of the root bridge, if necessary. Ÿ The time interval for moving from the learning state to the forwarding state avoids looping of frames before the bridges have converged and learned the new MAC addresses. Ÿ The default forward delay time intervalis 15 seconds. 3.20 The values of the Hello timer, MaxAge timer, and Forward Delay timer affect the time required for the bridges to agree on the new spanning tree when there is a change in the topology of the network (i.e. the time required for the bridges to converge, or the STP convergence time). The maximum STP convergence time using the default timer values is 50 seconds (MaxAge + FwdDlay + FwdDlay). 3.21 ATopology Change Notification(TCN) BPDU is sent out when a bridge detects that a port in the forwarding state is going down or a port is moving to the forwarding state (e.g. the port is enabled by the administrator). The bridge will send TCN BPDUs out of its root port towards the root bridge at every Hello interval until it is acknowledged. A CCNA 640-801 Exam Notes - Fundamentals of Switching 8 TCN BPDU is only 4 bytes long, which includes protocol ID, version field, and message type field. It virtually contains no information. 3.22 When a non-root bridge receives a TCN BPDU, it will forward the BPDU upstream towards the root bridge. It will also set the TCA bit in the next Configuration BPDU going downstream. The Configuration BPDU notifies the downstream bridge that the TCN BPDU has been received so that it can stop sending out TCN BPDUs. 3.23 When the root bridge receives a TCN BPDU, it will send out a Configuration BPDU with the TCA bit set, just like a non-root bridge. In addition, the TC bit of the BPDU will also be set to notify all the bridges in the network that there is a topology change. The TC bit will be set by the root bridge for a certain period of time (MaxAge + Fwddlay). 3.24 When a bridge receives a BPDU with the TC bit set, it will shorten the aging time of its bridge table entries from the default of 300 seconds to the Forward Delay time. Therefore the entries will be timed out quickly and the bridge will learn the topology of the new spanning tree. 3.25 In summary, STP works as follows: Election of the root bridge 1. When a bridge is powered up, it claims to be the root bridge by sending Hello BPDUs with its bridge ID as the root bridge’s ID and the cost to the root bridge equals 0. 2. The bridge with the lowest bridge ID is elected as the root bridge. 3. The root bridge puts all its ports in the forwarding state. Selection of the root port for each non-root bridge 4. The root bridge continually sends Hello BPDUs out all its ports every Hello time interval. 5. When a non-root bridge receives a Hello BPDU, it modifies the packet by incrementing the cost field, and then forwards the packet out all its ports (except the port at which the packet is received). 6. Each non-root bridge compares the cost value of the BPDUs received from different ports. The port that receives the lowest-cost BPDU is the root port of the bridge. The bridge then puts the root port in the forwarding state. Election of the designated bridge for each LAN segment 7. For each physical network segment, the bridge with the lowest cost to the root bridge is elected as the designated bridge of that segment. The designated bridge then puts the port connected to that segment in the forwarding state. This port is 9 CCNA 640-801 Exam Notes - Fundamentals of Switching known as the designated port. Blocking of redundant links for loops removal 8. Other than the ports on the spanning tree, i.e. ports of the root bridge, the root port of each non-root bridge, and the designated port of each LAN segment, all ports are put in the blocking state. 3.26 For example, in the following network, Switch X has the lowest bridge ID and is elected as the root bridge. Its ports are in the forwarding state. The root ports of Switch Y and Z are also in the forwarding state. Both Switch Y and Z have the same cost to the root bridge (Switch X), but Switch Y has a lower bridge ID. Therefore, Switch Y is elected as the designated bridge for the network segment between Switch Y and Z. The non-designated port of Switch Z is put in the blocking state. root port Switch Y designated port Switch X (root bridge) blocked port root port Switch Z 3.27 Now, if the link between Switch X and Switch Z failed, the following changes will happen: 1. When Switch Z detects the link failure or it has not received any Hello BPDU from Switch X for a time period of MaxAge (worst case), it either advertises itself as the root for re-election of the root bridge, or selects another port as its root port. Since it still receives BPDUs from Switch Y and knows that the bridge ID of Switch X is lower than itself, it selects the port to Switch Y as its new root port. 2. Switch Z puts the port to Switch Y in the listening state (from the blocking state), and the port to Switch X in the blocking state. Switch Z also sends a TCN BPDU out the port to Switch Y. 3. Switch Y forwards the TCN BPDU towards the root bridge, i.e. Switch X, and acknowledges the TCN BPDU (by setting the TCA bit of the next Configuration BPDU received from the root bridge and forwarding it to Switch Z). 4. Switch X sends a Configuration BPDU downstream to Switch Y, with the TC bit set. Switch Y forwards the BPDU to Switch Z. Both Switch Y and Z then change the aging time of their bridge table entries from 300 seconds to the forward delay time. Therefore an entry will be aged out if no frame is received from the host specified in CCNA 640-801 Exam Notes - Fundamentals of Switching 10 the entry within the forward delay time. 5. When the forward delay timer expires, Switch Z puts the port to Switch Y in the learning state (from the listening state), and learns MAC addresses based on received frames. 6. When the forward delay timer expires again, Switch Z puts the port to Switch Y in the forwarding state (from the learning state), and starts forwarding frames through this interface. 4. Virtual LAN (VLAN) and VLAN Trunking Virtual LAN 4.1 AVirtual LAN (VLAN) is a broadcast domain created based on the functional, security, or other requirements, instead of the physical locations of the devices, on a switch or across switches. With VLANs, a switch can group different interfaces into different broadcast domains. Without VLANs, all interfaces of a switch are in the same broadcast domain; switches connected with each other are also in the same broadcast domain, unless there is a router in between. 4.2 Different ports of a switch can be assigned to different VLANs. A VLAN can also span multiple switches (i.e. have members on multiple switches). 4.3 The advantages of implementing VLAN are: Ÿ It can group devices based on the requirements other than their physical locations. Ÿ It breaks broadcast domains and increases network throughput. Ÿ It provides better security by separating devices into different VLANs. Ÿ Since each VLAN is a separate broadcast domain, devices in different VLANs cannot listen or respond to the broadcast traffic of each other. Ÿ Inter-VLAN communication can be controlled by configuring access control lists on the router or Layer 3 switch connecting the VLANs. 4.4 VLANs can be configured using one of the following two methods: Ÿ Static VLAN Ÿ Assigning VLANs to switch ports based on the port numbers. Ÿ It is easier to set up and manage. Ÿ Dynamic VLAN Ÿ Assigning VLANs to switch ports based on the MAC addresses of the devices connected to the ports. 11 CCNA 640-801 Exam Notes - Fundamentals of Switching Ÿ A VLAN management application is used to set up a database of MAC addresses, and configure the switches to assign VLANs to the switch ports dynamically based on the MAC addresses of the connected devices. The application used by Cisco switches is called VLAN Management Policy Server(VMPS). 4.5 Cisco switches support a separate instance of spanning tree and a separate bridge table for each VLAN. 4.6 AVLAN is different from anIP subnet (details about IP subnet can be found in Chapter 5) in concept. However, there is a one-to-one relationship between a VLAN and an IP subnet. It means that devices in the same VLAN are also in the same IP subnet, devices in different VLANs are also in different IP subnets. 4.7 Conventional switching (i.e. Layer 2 switching) cannot switch frames across VLANs. 4.8 To forward packets between VLANs, a routeror a Layer 3 switchis required. 4.9 A router can route traffic between different VLANs by havinga physical interface connecting to the switch for each VLAN. Each interface is connected to an access link of the switch (details about access links will be explained later in this Section). The default gateway of the hosts of each VLAN should be configured as the interface of the router connecting to the same VLAN. 4.10 For example, if Host A in VLAN 8 sends a packet to Host B in VLAN 9, the packet will be forwarded to the router’s interface for VLAN 8 because it is the default gateway of Host A (and other hosts in VLAN 8). The router will then route the packet out the interface for VLAN 9 (the VLAN of Host B) based on IP routing (details about IP routing can be found in Chapter 5). The switch will then forward the packet to Host B. Router VLAN 8 VLAN 9 Switch VLAN 8 VLAN 9 Host A Host B CCNA 640-801 Exam Notes - Fundamentals of Switching 12 4.11 If a router supports VLAN trunking, it can route traffic between different VLANs by having only one physical interface connecting to the switch. The interface should be connected to a trunk link of the switch carrying traffic for all the VLANs(details about trunk links will be explained later in this Section). This type of configuration is sometimes called “router on a stick”. 4.12 ALayer 3 switch is a switch with routing features. It uses specialized hardware (Application Specific Integrated Circuits, ASICs) to route packets between VLANs or IP subnets. Therefore, it is more efficient than routers. Moreover, VLAN routing does not involve processing of the Layer 3 header of the packets. VLAN Trunking 4.13 There are two different types of links in a switched network: Ÿ Access link – a link that is part of only one VLAN. Therefore, a port connecting to an access link can be a member of only one VLAN. Ÿ Trunk link – a 100 Mbps or 1000 Mbps point-to-point link that connects switches or routers, and carries frames ofdifferent VLANs. Therefore, a port connecting to a trunk link can be a member of multiple VLANs. All VLANs are configured on a trunk link by default. 4.14 VLAN Trunking, by making use of frame tagging, allows traffic from different VLANs to transmit through the same Ethernet link (trunk link) across switches. 4.15 VLAN Trunking identifies the VLAN from which a frame is sent by tagging the frame with the source VLAN ID (12-bit long). This feature is known as frame tagging or frame identification. 4.16 With frame tagging, a switch knows which ports it should forward a broadcast frame (forward out the ports which have the same VLAN ID as the source VLAN ID). It also knows which bridge table it should use for forwarding an unicast frame (since a separate bridge table is used for each VLAN). 4.17 A frame tag is added when a frame is forwarded out to a trunk link, and is removed when the frame is forwarded out to an access link. Therefore, any device attached to an access link is unaware of its VLAN membership. 4.18 Cisco switches support two trunking protocols: 13 CCNA 640-801 Exam Notes - Fundamentals of Switching Ÿ Inter-switch Link (ISL) Ÿ It is a Cisco proprietary VLAN trunking protocol and can only be used between Cisco switches or switches supporting ISL. Ÿ It encapsulates a frame by an ISL header and trailer. Ÿ An ISL headeris 26 bytes long and contains the 12-bit VLAN ID, MAC addresses of the sending and the receiving switch, and some other information. Ÿ An ISL traileris 4 bytes long and contains the CRC of the frame. Ÿ It supports a separate instance of spanning tree for each VLAN by using a Cisco proprietary feature called Per-VLAN Spanning Tree (PVST+). Different instances of spanning tree allow the STP parameters of different VLANs to be configured independently. For example, we can break a network loop by blocking different links for different VLANs instead of blocking the same link for all VLANs, so that the available bandwidth can be used more efficiently. Ÿ IEEE 802.1q Ÿ It is the IEEE standard trunking protocol. Ÿ It inserts a 4-byte header to the middle of the original Ethernet header. The 802.1q header contains the 12-bit VLAN ID and some other information. Ethernet frame withouDest. addr. Source addType Data FCS 802.1q header (6 bytes) (6 bytes) (2 bytes) (46–1500 bytes) (4 bytes) With 802.1q header Dest. addr. Source add802.1q header Type Data FCS (6 bytes) (6 bytes) (4 bytes) (2 bytes) (46–1500 bytes) (4 bytes) Ÿ Recalculation of the FCS is required after the insertion of the 802.1q header as the original header has been changed. Ÿ It did not support a separate instance of spanning tree for each VLAN originally. However, Cisco switches can use PVST+ with 802.1q to support this feature. IEEE has also defined a new specification called 802.1S, which can be used with 802.1q to support multiple instances of spanning tree. Ÿ It defines one VLAN as the native VLAN. It does not insert 802.1q header into the frames sent from the native VLAN over a trunk link. The default native LAN is VLAN 1. Ÿ Since 802.1q is defined as a type of Ethernet frame, it does not require that every device on a link understands 802.1q. By defining a trunk port as a member of the native VLAN, any Ethernet device (even if it does not understand 802.1q) connected to the trunk port can read frames for the native VLAN. Ÿ Both sides of a trunk link must agree on which VLAN is used as the native VLAN. Otherwise, the trunk will not operate properly. CCNA 640-801 Exam Notes - Fundamentals of Switching 14 VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) 4.19 VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) is a Cisco proprietary protocol for switches to exchange VLAN configuration information (e.g. VLAN membership). It ensures the configuration information is consistent across a VTP domain. For example, you only need to create a VLAN (or define the name of a VLAN, etc.) on one switch, and VTP will distribute that information to all switches in the VTP domain automatically. There is no need to repeat the configuration works manually on each switch. All devices that need to share VLAN information must use the same VTP domain name. 4.20 Switches exchange VLAN configuration information using VTP advertisements. Some of the information included in a VTP advertisement are: Ÿ Configuration revision number. Ÿ Configuration information for each VLAN, e.g. the VLAN ID, VLAN name, and switches which have ports that are members of the VLAN. 4.21 A device running VTP operates in one of the following three modes: Ÿ Server mode Ÿ A VTP server can create, update, and delete VLANs and VTP informationin a VTP domain. Ÿ A VTP server increments the configuration revision number when there is a change to the VLAN configuration information. Ÿ A VTP server floods VTP advertisements to the VTP servers and clients in the VTP domain every 5 minutes or when there is a change to the VLAN configuration information. Ÿ When a VTP advertisement with a higher revision number is received, the stored VLAN configuration information is updated. Ÿ A VTP server saves the VLAN configuration information in NVRAM(Non- volatile RAM). Ÿ Client mode Ÿ A VTP client cannot create, update, or delete the VLAN configuration information in a VTP domain. Ÿ AVTP client receives and forwards VTP advertisements fromthe other VTP switches in the same VTP domain, and learns the VLAN configuration information from the advertisements. Ÿ A VTP client does not save the VLAN configurationinformationin NVRAM. Ÿ Transparent mode Ÿ A switch in transparent mode does not participate in any VTP domain. It can 15 CCNA 640-801 Exam Notes - Fundamentals of Switching create, update, and delete the VLAN configuration informationwith only local significance, i.e. the changes only affect that switchand will not be sent to other switches. Ÿ A switch in transparent mode receives and forwards VTP advertisements from other VTP switches but ignore the information in the advertisements. Ÿ A switch in transparent mode saves the locally defined VLAN configuration informationin NVRAM. 4.22 There must be at least one VTP server in a VTP domain. 4.23 To configure a switch as a VTP server, first configure it as a VTP client such that it can receive the updated VLAN configuration information from the other VTP switches. After that, it can be configured as a VTP server. 4.24 VTP Pruning prevents broadcast frames and unicast frames for a particular VLAN from being forwarded to the switches that do not have any port with membership ofthat VLAN. It allows more efficient use of network bandwidth. CCNA 640-801 Exam Notes - Extending Switched Networks with VLANs 16 Extending Switched Networks with VLANs 1. Cisco Switches – Basic Configuration 1.1 A Cisco 2950 switch can work out-of-the-box without any additional configuration. As no user password or enable password has been set, you can enter the user mode immediately by connecting through the console port, and enter the enable mode by using the command “>enable”. 1.2 The passwords of a Cisco switch can be set just like a Cisco router running IOS software: Switch>enable Switch#configure terminal Switch(config)#line console 0 Ÿ Set the password for Switch(config-line)#login console port 0. Switch(config-line)#password Switch(config-line)#exit Switch(config)#line vty 0 4 Ÿ Set the telnet password Switch(config-line)#login for ports 0-4. Switch(config-line)#password Switch(config-line)#exit Switch(config)#enable secret Ÿ Set the enable secret. 1.3 VLAN 1 is the default VLAN of an interface. It is also the default management VLAN of a switch. The IP address of a switch should be defined on the management VLAN virtual interface as follows: Switch(config)#interface vlan 1 Switch(config-if)#ip address Switch(config-if)#exit Switch(config)# In addition, BPDUs, CDP and VTP advertisements are also sent on VLAN 1. 17 CCNA 640-801 Exam Notes - Extending Switched Networks with VLANs 1.4 The interface configuration commands for a Cisco switch are similar to that for a Cisco router. Some of the configuration commands are summarized below: Command Description (config)#interface vlan Ÿ Enter the interface configuration mode, "(config-if)#", to configure the IP address of the switch under the management VLAN. Ÿ The default management vlan-id is 1. Ÿ Set (or remove) the IP address of the switch (config-if)#[no] ip address under the management VLAN. This command should be issued after the command "(config)#interface vlan ". (config)#interface Ÿ Select the interface for configuration and enter the interface configuration mode "(config- if)#". Ÿ Examples of interface type parameter values are "ethernet", "fastethernet", "gigabitethernet", etc. Ÿ Add a description to the interface (or remove (config-if)#description the description). (config-if)#no description Ÿ The description will be shown in the output of the show configuration commands. Ÿ There is no description by default. Ÿ Configure the duplex operation of the (config-if)#duplex {full | half | auto} interface as full-duplex, half-duplex (default), (config-if)#no duplex or auto-negotiation. Ÿ The "no" form of the command restores the default value, i.e. half-duplex. (config-if)#speed {10 | 100 | Ÿ Configure the speed of the interface as 10Mbps, 100Mbps (default), 1000Mbps, auto- 1000 | auto | nonegotiate} negotiation, or no negotiation (i.e. auto- (config-if)#no speed negotiation is disabled and the interface runs at 1000 Mbps. This option is valid and visible only on Gigabit Ethernet interfaces). Ÿ The "no" form of the command restores the default value, i.e. 100Mbps. (config-if)#[no] shutdown Ÿ Administrative shutdown (or bring up) the interface. 1.5 Some commands for displaying switch configurationinformation are summarized CCNA 640-801 Exam Notes - Extending Switched Networks with VLANs 18 below: Command Description #show startup-config Ÿ Show the startup configuration file. #show running-config Ÿ Show the running configuration file. #show interfaces Ÿ Show information of all interfaces configured [ ] on the switch, or the specified interface. Ÿ Some of the configuration information that will be displayed are: Ÿ Interface status (up/down). Ÿ Line protocol status (up/down). Ÿ MAC address. Ÿ MTU, duplex (full-duplex or half-duplex), speed (10Mbps, 100Mbps, etc.). Ÿ Bandwidth, delay, keepalive interval, etc. Ÿ Some of the statistics that will be displayed are: Ÿ 5-minute input rate and output rate in bps and packets per second. Ÿ #input packets, #output packets Ÿ #input error packets, #output error packets Ÿ #collisions, etc. #show interfaces vlan Ÿ Show the IP address of the switch configured under the management VLAN. #show interfaces status Ÿ List all interfaces with the following informationfor each interface: Ÿ Port name. Ÿ Status (notconnect, connected, disabled or err-disabled). Ÿ VLAN ID. Ÿ Duplex (auto or half or full). Ÿ Speed (auto, 10, 100, etc.). Ÿ Interface type (e.g. 10/100BaseTX). #show mac-address-table Ÿ Show all entries in the MAC address table (i.e. [vlan ] the forwarding table), or only the entries of a [address ] particular VLAN-ID, MAC address, interface, [interface ] or only dynamic (i.e. dynamically learned) / [dynamic | static] static entries. Ÿ For each entry, the following information are shown: Ÿ VLAN ID. Ÿ MAC address.
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