PSYCHOLOGY CHAPTER 13
• Psychologists seek to describe, explain & predict the occurrence of different
behaviors. By the rigorous application of scientific methods, psychologists can
often offer possible explanations for this behavior, as well as suggestions about
what to do about it immediately in order to cope with it and prevent its occurrence
in the future.
HOW PSYCHOLOGY DEVELOPED:
• Psychology’s focus, methods, and explanatory models have changed as it has
• The term “psychology” comes from two Greek words, psyche, meaning the soul,
and logos, referring to the study of a subjtht. (This term did not gain more than
rare usage among scholars until the early 18 century).
• Scholars interested in the history of psychology often point to developments in
philosophy and physiology as influencing the course of early psychology.
• Philosophers such as Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, considered and debated issues
of relevance to psychology, including subjects such as whether knowledge is
inborn (nativism) or gained through experience (empiricism).
• Aristotle’s theory of memory suggested that memories are the result of three
principles of association similarity, contrast, and contiguity.
• Descartes famously argued for the dualism of mind & body, that they were
separate and fundamentally different.
• The establishment of the first research laboratory in psychology by Wilhelm
Wundt marked the birth of psychology as a modern science. (1879)
• The new discipline grew rapidly in North America in the late 19 century, as
illustrated by G. Stanley Hall’s career.
• Wundt mounted a campaign to make psychology an independent discipline rather
than a stepchild of philosophy or physiology. Wundt’s pioneering work had an
enormous impact on the development of psychology.
• In 1881, Wundt established the first journal devoted to publishing research on
• Hall established America’s first research lab in psychology and founded the
American Psychological Association.
• APA is the worlds largest organization devoted to the advancement of psychology.
• The first two major schools of thought, structuralism and fundamentalism, were
entangled in the fields first great intellectual battle.
o Structuralism was based on the notion that the task of psychology is to
analyze consciousness into tits basic elements and investigate how these
elements are related. • To examine the contents of consciousness, the structuralists depended on the
method of introspection, the careful, systematic selfobservation of one’s own
o Functionalism was based on the belief that psychology should investigate
the function or purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure.
• James thinking illustrates how psychology like any field is deeply embedded in a
network of cultural and intellectual influences. James had been impressed with
Darwin’s concept of natural selection. According to the principle of natural
selection, heritable characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive
advantage are most likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to
subsequent generations and thus come to be “selected” over time.
• Structuralists naturally gravitated to the laboratory; functionalists were more
interested in how people adapt their behavior to the demands of the real world
• Founded by Jon. B Watson, behaviorism is a theoretical orientation based on the
premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior.
• Behavior refers to any overt (observable) response or activity by an organism.
• Watson also debated whether behavior is determined mainly by genetic
inheritance (“nature”) or by environment and experience (“nurture”).
• The behaviorists eventually came to view psychology’s mission as an attempt to
relate overt behaviors (“responses”) to observable events in the environment
(“stimuli”). A stimulus is any detectable input from the environment.
• Behaviorism’s stimulus response approach contributed to the rise of animal
research in psychology. (Many mental processes would now be studied on
animals, as they made better research subjects, anyway.)
• Sigmund Freud’s (18561939) approach to psychology grew out of his efforts to
treat mental disorders. Decades of experience probing into patients lives and
gathering material looking inward and examining his own anxieties, conflicts, and
desires, provided inspiration for his own theory.
• According to Freud, the unconscious contains thoughts, memories, and desires
that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert
great influence on behavior. His psychoanalytic theory attempts to explain
personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious
determinants of behavior.
• Like Watson, Skinner also emphasized how environmental factors mold behavior.
Although he repeatedly acknowledged that an organism’s behavior is influenced
by its biological endowment, he argued that psychology could understand and
predict behaviors adequately without resorting to physiological explanations.
• Skinner’s fundamental principle of behavior: Organisms tend to repeat responses
that lead to positive outcomes, and they tend not to repeat responses that lead to
neutral or negative outcomes. Skinner arrived at the conclusion that free will is an
• In psychology, humanism is the theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique
qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal
growth. • Rogers (1951) argued that human behaviour is governed primarily by each
individual’s sense of self, or “selfconcept” – which animals presumably lack.
• Both he and Maslow (1954) maintained that to fully understand peoples
behaviour, psychologists must take into account the fundamental human drive
toward personal growth.
• G. Stanley Hall established the first experimental laboratory in psychology in
1833 at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. James Mark Baldwin
at UOFT established the first experimental laboratory in the British Empire in
• The first psychology course offered at a Canadian University was likely at
Dalhousie in 1838.
o Applied Psychology is the brand of psychology concerned with everyday,
o Clinical psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with the
diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders.
• During WWII, many academic psychologists were pressed into service as
clinicians. They were needed to screen military recruits and to treat soldiers
suffering from trauma.
o Cognition refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge.
In other words, cognition involves thinking or conscious experience.
Advocates of the cognitive perspective point out that people’s
manipulations of mental images surely influence how they behave.
• Donald Hebb was a professor that is credited with high lightening the importance
of physiological and neuropsychological perspectives and as having paved the
way for the recent cognitive revolution in psychology. Hebb’s emphasis on the
importance of the brain in behaviour provided an important counterweight to
those times dominance of the behaviorist models. He argued that the locus of
behaviour should be sought in the brain. Hebb’s ideas suggested how neural
networks might work and be organized. He proposed that the key to
understanding this was activity at the neuronal level.
• Western psychology was so narrow because:
First, crosscultural research is costly, difficult, and time
Second, some psychologist’s worry that cultural comparisons may
in advertently foster stereotypes of various cultural groups, many
of which already have a long history of being victimized by
Third, ethnocentrism the tendency to view ones own group as
superior to others and as the standard for judging the worth of
• The civil rights movement, the women’s movement, and the gay rights movement
all raised doubts about whether psychology had dealt adequately with human
o Above all else however, the new interest in culture appears attributable to
two recent trends: (1) Advance in communication, travel, and international trade have “shrunk” the world and increased global interdependence,
bringing more and more North American and Europeans into contact with
people from non Western cultures, and (2) the ethnic makeup of the
Western world has become an increasingly diverse multicultural mosaic.
• Today, more and more Western psychologists are broadening their horizons and
incorporating cultural factors into their theories and research.
o Evolutionary psychology examines behavioral processes in terms of their
adaptive value for members of species over the course of many
o Positive psychology uses theory and research to better understand the
positive, adaptive, creative and fulfilling aspects of human existence.
• The emerging field of positive psychology has three areas of interest. The first is
the study of positive subject experiences, or positive emotions, such as happiness,
love, gratitude, contentment, and hope. The second focus is on positive individual
traits that is personal strengths and virtues. The third area of interest is in positive
institutions and communities.
• Psychology is the science that studies behaviour and the physiological and
cognitive processes that underlie it, and it is the profession that applies the
accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems.
• The seven major research areas in modern psychology are (1) developmental
psychology, (2) social psychology, (3) experimental psychology, (4) physiological
psychology, (5) cognitive psychology, (6) personality, and (7) psychometrics.
• Applied psychology consists of four clearly identified areas of specialization: (1)
clinical psychology, (2) counseling psychology, (3) educational and school
psychology, and (4) industrial and organizational psychology.
AREA FOCUS OF SEARCH
Developmental Looks at human development across the life span.
Social Focuses on interpersonal behaviour and the role of social forces in
Psychology governing behaviour.
Experimental Sensation, perception, learning, conditioning, motivation, and
Physiological Examines the influence of genetic factors on behaviour and the role of
Psychology the brain, nervous system, endocrine system, and bodily chemicals in
the regulation of behaviour.
Cognitive Focuses on “higher” mental processes, such as memory, reasoning,
Psychology information processing, language, problem solving, decisionmaking,
Personality Is interested in describing and understanding individuals’ consistency
in behaviour, which represents their personality.
Psychometrics Behaviour and capacities, usually through the development of psychological tests. The branch of medicine concerned with the
diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders.
Specialty Focus of professional practice
Clinical Clinical psychologists are concerned with the evaluation, diagnosis, and
psychology treatment of individuals with psychological disorders, as well as
treatment of less severe behavioral and emotional problems.
Counseling Counseling psychology overlaps with clinical, both specialists engage
psychology in similar activities, however counseling psychologists usually work
with a somewhat different clientele, providing assistance to people
struggling with everyday problems of moderate severity.
Educational Educational psychologists work to improve curriculum design,
and school achievement testing, teacher training, and other aspects of the
psychology educational process.
Industrial and Psychologists in this area preform a wide variety of tasks in the world
organizational of business and industry. These tasks include running human resources
psychology departments, working to improve staff morale and attitudes, striving to
increase job satisfaction, and productivity, examining organizational
structures and procedures, and making recommendations for
Perspective and Principal Contributors Subject Basic Premise
its influential Matter
Behavioral • John B. Watson Effects of Only observable events
(1913present) • Ivan Pavlov environment (stimulus response
on the overt relationships) can be
• B. F. Skinner behavior of studied scientifically
Psychoanalytic • Sigmund Freud Unconscious Unconscious motives and
(1900 present) • Carl Jung determinants experiences in early
of behaviour childhood govern
• Alfred Adler personality and mental
Humanistic • Carl Rogers Unique Humans are free, rational
(1950s present) • Abraham aspects of beings with the potential
Maslow human for personal growth, and
experience they are fundamentally
different from animals
Cognitive • Jean Piaget Thoughts; Human behaviour cannot
(1950s present) • Noam Chomsky mental be fully understood
• Herbert Simon processes without examining how people acquire, store, and
Biological • James Olds Physiological An organisms functioning
(1950s present) basis of can be explained in terms
• Roger Sperry
• David Hubel behaviour in of the bodily structures
• Torsten Wiesel humans and and biochemical processes
animals that underline behaviour.
Evolutionary • David Buss Evolutionary Behaviour patterns have
(1980s present) • Martin Daly basis of evolved to solve adaptive
behaviour in problems; natural
• Margo Wilson humans and selection favors behaviors
• Leda Cosmides
• John Tooby animals that enhance reproductive
• Psychologists and other scientists share three sets of interrelated goals:
o Measurement and description measurement techniques that make it
possible to describe behaviour clearly and precisely.
o Understanding and prediction Scientists make and test predictions called
hypotheses. A hypothesis is a tentative statement about the relationship
between two or more variables. Variables are any measureable conditions,
events, characteristics, or behaviors that are controlled or observed in a
o Application and control to build toward a better understanding of
behaviour, they construct theories. A theory is a system of interrelated
ideas used to explain a set of observations. A good theory will generate a
host of testable hypotheses.
• Steps in a Scientific Investigation:
• Step 1: Formulate a Testable Hypothesis To be testable, scientific hypotheses
must be formulated precisely, and the variables under study must be clearly
defined. An operational definition describes the actions or operations that will be
used to measure a variable.
• Step 2: Select the Research Method and Design the Study The various methods –
experiments, case studies, surveys, and so forth each have advantages and
disadvantages. The researcher has to ponder the pros and cons and then select the
strategy that appears to be the most appropriate and practical. They must make
detailed plans for executing their study. • Step 3: Collect the Data Researchers use a variety of data collection techniques,
which are procedures for making empirical observations and measurements.
• Step 4: Analyze the Data and Draw Conclusions Researchers use statistics to
analyze their data and to decide whether their hypotheses have been supported.
Thus, statistics play an essential role in the scientific enterprise.
• Step 5: Report the Findings Scientific progress can be achieved only if
researchers share their findings with one another and with the general public. A
journal is a periodical that publishes technical and schola