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Test 1 Review- Chapters 1, 2, 12, and Appendix B

24 Pages

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PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

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Test 1 Review Chapter 1 2 12 and Appendix B Chapter 1y The word psychology comes from two Greek words psyche meaning soul and logos referring to the study of a subject thy Was a topic of study in the 16 century when psyche was used to refer to the soul spirit or mind as distinguished from the body thy In the 18 century it became the study of the mind 1A y Wilhelm Wundt mounted a campaign to make psychology an independent discipline rather than a stepchild of philosophy or physiology y Established the first formal laboratory for research in psychology at the University of Leipzig Germany y 1879 psychologys date of birth y Wundt is characterized as the founder of psychology y Declared that the new psychology should be a science modeled after fields such as physics and chemistry y Primary focus of psychology was consciousness the awareness of immediate experience y In North America Wundts new science grew y Many of the laboratories were started by Wundts students of his students students y G Stanley Hall studied briefly with Wundt y Important contributor to the rapid growth of psychology in America y Established Americas first research laboratory in psychology at Johns Hopkins University y Four years later he launched Americas first psychology journal y He was the driving force behind the American Psychological Association APA and was elected its first president y APA is the worlds largest organization devoted to the advancement of psychologyy The first two major schools of thought y Structuralism o Based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related o Founded by Edward Titchener o Includes sensations feelings and images conscious experience o Vision hearing and touch o Depend on introspection the careful systematic selfobservation of ones own conscious experience o Introspection requires training to make the subject more objective and more aware o Once trained they were typically exposed to different stimuli and were asked to analyze their experience o Naturally gravitated to the laboratory o The limitations of introspection contributed to the demise of structuralism y Functionalism o Based on the belief that psychology could investigate the function or purpose of consciousness rather than its structure o Founded by William James o His book Principles of Psychology is the most influential text in the history of psychology o Believes in cultural and intellectual influences o Natural selection heritable characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations and thus come to be selected over time o James applied this idea to humans and concluded that consciousness is an important characteristic of our species therefore we should investigate functions rather than structure of consciousness o Consciousness consists of a continuous flow of thoughts called a stream of consciousness o Functionalists were more interested in how people adapt their behaviour to demands of the real world around them o Investigate mental testing patterns of development in children effectiveness of educational practices and behavioural differences between sexesy Behaviourism was founded by John B Watson y It is a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behaviour y Proposed that psychologists abandon the study of consciousness altogether and focus exclusively on behaviours that they can observe directly y Mental processes were not a proper subject for scientific study because they are ultimately private events y Behaviour any overt observable response or activity by an organism y Psychologists cannot study scientifically the thoughts wishes and feelings that might accompany these observable behaviours y Nature vs nurture whether behaviour is determined mainly by genetic inheritance nature or by environment and experience nurture y Watson argued that each was made not born heredity is not important behaviour is governed primarily by the environment y Behaviourists view psychologys mission as an attempt to relate responses to stimuli y Stimulus any detectable input from the environment y Since behaviourists investigated stimulusresponse relationships the behavioural approach is referred to as stimulusresponse SR psychology y Ivan Pavlov showed that dogs could be trained to salivate in response to an auditory stimulus stimulusresponse bonds y Many psychologists thought that animals would make better research subjects y This is because experimental research is often more productive if experimenters can exert control over their subjectsy Sigmund Freuds approach to psychology grew out of his efforts to treat mental disorders y He treated people troubled by psychological problems such as irrational fears obsessions and anxieties with psychoanalysis y Unconscious contains thoughts memories and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behaviour y Seemingly meaningless slips of the tongue often appear to reveal a persons true feelings y His patients dreams often seemed to express important feelings they were unaware of y Psychoanalytic theory attempts to explain personality motivation and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behaviour y Made the suggestion that people are not masters of their own minds
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