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Test 3 Review- Chapters 7-10

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PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

Test 3 Review Chapter 7 8 9 and 10 Chapter 7 Behavioural approach yo Stresses the importance of overt behaviours o SR stimulusresponse relationships o Mechanical o Not a lot of cognitive processing is occurringCognitive approach yo SOR relationship o O stands for the cognitive process taking place o Oevaluate predict expect interpret cognitionKohler yo Took a chimpanzee put it in a cage and put bananas hanging outside of the chimpanzees reach o Believed there was more cognition going on in animals o Used other means to get the bananas o Looked as though the chimpanzees had insight o Insight sudden understanding of how to solve a problem aha phenomenony Semantic memory memory for general information y Episodic memory memory for personal events y Animals have no episodic memory or ability to anticipate events far in the future y Three key processes in memory o Encoding forming a memory codeRequires attention o Storage maintaining encoded information in memory over time o Retrieval recovering information from memory stores y Forgetting may be due o deficiencies in any of the three key processes in memoryy Nextinline effect subjects tend to not recall much of what was said just before they take their turn because when people are next in line to speak they are too preoccupied rehearsing to pay attention to what is being said y Active encoding is a crucial process in memoryy Attention focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events critical to everyday life y Cocktail party phenomenon attention involves late selection based on the meaning of input y Location of the attention filter depends on the cognitive load of current information processing y When we are attending to complicated highload tasks that consume much of our attentional capacity selection tends to occur early y When we are involved in simpler lowload tasks more attentional capacity is left over to process the meaning of distractions allowing for later selection y People have difficulty when attempting to focus their attention on two or more inputs simultaneously y Human brain can effectively handle only one attention consuming task at a time y Multitasking involves switching attention back and forth among tasks instead of processing them simultaneously y Effortful processing picking up information because you are intentionally attempting to do so y Automatic processing picking up information without intending to do so SIM5 6A y Different rates of forgetting occur because some methods of encoding create more durable memory codes than others y Craik and Lockhart incoming information can be processed at different levels y Levelsofprocessing theory Depth of processing theory deeper levels of processing result in longerlasting memory codes o Structural encoding emphasizes the physical structure of the word o Phonemic encoding what a word sounds like o Semantic encoding meaning of the word y Processing time is not a reliable index of depth of processing y Elaboration linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding o Consists of thinking of examples that illustrate an idea o Selfgenerated examples created through elaboration are more valuable than given examples y Visual imagery creation of visual images to represent the words to be remembered o Easier to form images of concrete objects than of abstract concepts o Dualcoding theory memory is enhanced by forming semantic and visual codes since either can lead to recall y Selfreferent encoding deciding how or whether information is personally relevant o Peoples recall of information tends to be slanted in favour of material that is personally relevant 6B y Incoming information passes through two temporary storage buffers before it is transferred into a longterm store Ssensory storeSTMLTM y Informationprocessing approach to memory o Inputprocessingoutput o Stimulusprocessingrecall retrieval y Sensory memory preserves information in its original sensory form for a brief time usually only a fraction of a second o Sensation of a visual pattern sound or touch lingers for a brief moment after the sensory stimulation is over o Gives you additional time to try and recognize the stimuli y Shortterm memory limitedcapacity store that can maintain unrehearsed information for up to about 20 seconds o For information to go from sensory memory to STM 2 things are neededAttentionPattern recognition recognize pattern of letters o Rehearsal process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about the information o Without rehearsal information in shortterm memory is lost in less than 20 seconds o Limited in number of items it can hold o People can recall about 7 items in tasks that require them to remember unfamiliar material o Chunk group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit increases capacity of shortterm memory o Baddeleys model of working memoryPhonological loop use recitation to temporarily remember a phone numberVisuospatial sketchpad temporarily hold and manipulate visual imagesCentral executive system deployment of attention switching the focus of attention and dividing attention as neededEpisodic buffer temporary limitedcapacity store that allows the various components of working memory to integrate information and serves as an interface between working memory and longterm memory o Variations in working memory capacity correlate positively with measures of highlevel cognitive abilities o How can we increase the capacity of STMChunkingA unit of meaningful information y Categorized InformationRepetitionVisual imageRelated words to something personalWhat can we do to ensure that longterm info is transferred into long term memoryUse elaborate rehearsal yo Creating associationalphabet o Something has meaningHighImagery Words picture really easyLowimagery words dont easily conjure up and are abstract words ex Guilt and adjectivesHigh has dual codes somaticmeaning codes and visual codeslooks yy Longterm memory unlimited capacity store that can hold information over lengthy periods of time o All information stored in longterm memory is stored there permanently and forgetting occurs only because people sometimes cannot retrieve needed information from LTM o Flashbulb memories unusually vivid and detailed recollections of momentous events o However they become less detailed and complete with time and are often inaccurate y People spontaneously organize information into categories for storage in memory y Clustering tendency to remember similar or related items in groups y Conceptual hierarchy multilevel classification system based on common properties among items y Schema organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or event abstracted from previous experience with the object or event o People are more likely to remember things that are consistent with their schemas than things that are not o However people sometimes exhibit better recall of things that violate their schemabased expectations y Semantic network nodes representing concepts joined together by pathways that link related concepts o Length of each pathway represents the degree of association between two concepts shorter pathways imply stronger associations o Spreading activation activation spreads out along the pathways of the semantic network surrounding the word thoughts naturally go to related words o Strength of this activation decreases as it travels outward y Parallel distributed processing PDP models cognitive processes depend on patterns of activation in highly interconnected computational networks that resemble neural networks o Consists of large network of interconnected computing units nodes that operate much like neurons o Nodes may be inactive or may send excitatory or inhibitory signals to other units o Specific memories correspond to particular patterns of activation in these networks o In semantic networks specific nodes represent specific concepts or pieces of knowledge
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