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Midterm

PSYC 1010 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Wilhelm Wundt, Edward B. Titchener, Sigmund Freud


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 1010
Professor
Myriam Mongrain
Study Guide
Midterm

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Psychology Midterm #1 Notes Chapters 1-4
Chapter 1: Evolution of Psychology
Origins of Psychology
born out of philosophy and physiology
Wilhelm Wundt, a German professor:
- established the first psychological research laboratory and journal
-characterized as the founder of psychology
psychology's primary focus was the scientific study of consciousness according to Wundt
G. Stanley Hall established the APA and helped drive growth in the field of psychology in
America
Structuralism vs. Functionalism
first two major schools of thought
Structuralism: Edward Titchener
based on the idea that the task of psychology is to analyze the basic elements of consciousness;
identify and examine the fundamental components of consciousness
depend on the method of introspection (systematic self-observation)
Functionalism: William James
based on the idea that psychology should investigate the purpose and function of consciousness
used theory of natural selection to study how people adapted their behaviour to their
environment
sparked the development of behaviourism and applied psychology
Behaviourism
John B. Watson
stated that psychology should study only observable behaviour
proposed that psychology abandon the study of consciousness
nature vs. nurture: Watson maintained that behaviour is governed primarily by the environment
studied the stimulus-response relationship (S-R psychology)
B.F. Skinner proposed that organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes
and they tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative outcomes
asserted that all behaviour is governed by external stimuli: “free will is an illusion”
Psychoanalysis
Pioneered by Sigmund Freud
Freud maintained that the unconscious contains thought, memories and emotions that we were
unaware of but governed much of our behaviour
psychoanalytic theory attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by
focusing on unconscious determinants of behaviour
proposed that behaviour is dominated by primitive sexual urges
suggested that we are not the masters of our own minds
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Psychology Midterm #1 Notes Chapters 1-4
Humanism
theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans
proposes that human behaviour is governed by each individual's sense of self-observation
maintained that to fully understand people's behaviour, psychologists must take into account the
fundamental human drive towards personal growth
Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow were strong advocates of humanism
humanism's greatest contribution to psychology has been their innovative treatments for
psychological problems and disorders
Clinical Psychology
concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems
Applied Psychology
concerned with the everyday, practical problems
Cognitive Perspective
cognition refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge
cognitive theorists argue that psychology must study internal mental events to fully understand
behaviour
has become the dominant perspective in contemporary psychology
Evolutionary Psychology
assert that the patterns of behaviour seen in a species are products of evolution
the human was sculpted by natural selection, it is this organ that is the subject matter of
psychology
Positive Psychology
uses theory and research to better understand the positive, adaptive, creative, and fulfilling
aspects of human existence
three areas of interest:
- study of positive experiences
- positive individual traits
- positive institutions and communities
Research Areas in Modern Psychology
developmental psychology
social psychology
experimental psychology
physiological psychology
cognitive psychology
personality
psychometrics
educational psychology
health psychology
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Psychology Midterm #1 Notes Chapters 1-4
Chapter 2: Research Enterprise in Psychology
Goals of the Scientific Enterprise
three sets of goals shared by scientists and psychologists
- measurement and description: to develop measurement techniques that make it possible to describe
behaviour clearly and precisely
- understanding and prediction: create hypotheses to evaluate their understanding
- application and control: create theories to better build understanding
a scientific theory must be testable
Advantages of the Scientific Approach
offers two major advantages:
- clarity and precision
-relative intolerance of error
Data Collection Methods
case studies
surveys
statistics
naturalistic observation:
- major strength of this method is that it allows researchers to study behaviour under less artificial
conditions
- major problem with this method is that researchers often have trouble making observations
unobtrusively
- reactivity occurs when a subject's behaviour is altered by the presence of an observer
meta-analysis:
- combination of the statistical results of many studies of the same question
Terms
social desirability status:
- tendency to give socially approved answers to questions about oneself
response set:
-tendency to respond in a particular way that is unrelated to the questions
experimenter bias:
- occurs when a researcher's expectations or preferences about the o0utcome of a study influence the
results obtained
double-bind procedure:
- research strategy in which neither subjects nor experimenters know which subjects are the control or
experimental
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