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Chapter 3

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2030
Professor
Krista Phillips
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 2: From Hunches to Testable Hypotheses What is Meant by a Cycle of Discovery + Justification? Context Discovery - the initial hunches, questions, insights + the resulting conjectural statements or suppositions that give direction to researchers' observations 5 Facets (1) coming up with leads, hunches, interesting questions (2) doing a literature search to discover what others have found + interpreted (3) defining the basic variables + concepts (4) recasting the hunches/questions into technically acceptable hypotheses for empirical evaluation (5) pulling the work together in a research proposal the context of justification: the empirical evaluation of conjectural statements/suppositions + the evidence-based defense of conclusions + generalizations good sources of promising research leads: - discussion sections of research reports (examples in text) - journals + books that publish detailed reviews on particular topics - public lectures/colloquiums - being able to specify a predictor doesn't mean we can specify a cause Randomized Experiments - used when researchers want to maximize their own confidence that one variable is the cause of an outcome, they often turn to a special case of studying relationships - often used in medical research simplest design - 2 conditions, each unit sampled (ex: patients) is assigned to one of the conditions by a randomizing procedure. - one condition would be the test medication, the other serves as control - control group receives the best currently available treatment (if one exists - for purpose of comparison), or a placebo Box 2.1 replications: the duplication of an experimental observation varied replications: when a new variable is intentionally introduced - as the # of replications increases, meta-analysis is used to sum up the overall findings + to explore for conditions (moderator variables) that may strengthen/weaken the relationships between independent + dependent variables What are Hypothesis-Generating Heuristics? (William J. McGuire) - the strategies + circumstances that can lead to testable hypothesis heuristic: stimulating interest as a means of furthering investigation 4 Hypothesis-Generating Heuristics (p.23-24) (1) Explaining paradoxical incidents in testable ways EX: Kitty Genovese - Bystander Effect/Diffusion of Responsibility Phenomenon (2) Recognizing potential hypotheses in analogies, metaphors, figures of speech, other assorted imagery EX: McGuire's inoculation model of resistance to "viral-like" counterpropaganda (3) Identifying conflicting conclusions for empirical adjudication (then trying to account for them) EX: Zajonc's social facilitation hypotheses (4) Improving on older ideas EX: Skinner's distinction between Pavlovian conditiong + Thorndikian learning What is the Potential Role of Serendipity? serendipity: a felicitous/
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