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Introduction to Research Methods: Lecture 2 plus *Test Hint*

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PSYC 2030
Rebecca Jubis

PSYCH2030 Intro To Research Methods 13-01-21 6:12 PM Lecture 2 Pre Post Studies 1. Pre-test 2. Treatment 3. Post-test Two Different Groups 1. Treatment 2. No Treatment Other factors that could affect post-test scores: • History (event that could have taken place between the pre-test and post-test) • Maturation (developmental phases, age-related changes) • Regression (at time of testing, the pre-test scores could have been way off of an individual’s normal average score. For example, they scored a 400 when all other times are usually around 300 and vise versa) o Regression- tends to happen when subjects are selected because they score high or low on some variable. When they’re re-tested, their scores tend to change in the direction of the mean. Very high scores become lower and very low scores become higher. • Testing & Instrumentation (Testing Effect: practice and memorization may influence second test. Instrumentation Effect: Alterations to the test may affect internal validity by, for example, an unknown change in test difficulty) Subject-Selection Effect (threatens internal validity) –This occurs when subjects can’t be randomly assigned. Subject Attrition- refers to subject failing to complete a study. Those finishing the study may not be equivalent to those dropping out of the study. Chapter 6- Control Problem in Experimental Research Between-Subject Design- a subject either receives level A or level B but NOT both. When you should use this design: • subject variable • deception is involved • demand characteristics exist • if practice effects are an issue Advantage: • subjects are naïve Disadvantages: • you need more subjects • effects could be due to “individual differences” Solutions: • Create equivalent groups in every aspect except for the independent variable (avera
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