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Introduction to Research Methods: Lecture 3 **Including Test 1 TIPS and HINTS**

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PSYC 2030
Rebecca Jubis

PSYCH2030 Intro to Research Methods Lecture 3 13-01-24 7:04 PM Test 1 in 2 weeks (Chapter 5, 6, 7) **For Test, you will NOT be tested on:** • Research Examples • Grey Boxes ***Hint: 95% of notes covered from lecture will be on Test 1*** Balanced Latin-Square Design This assures that: a. Every condition occurs equally often in every sequential position. b. Every condition precedes and follows every other condition exactly once. Note: The number of subjects you use must be equal to or a multiple of the number of rows (sequences) **Will not be responsible to make a Latin-Square Design, but just know about it** Counterbalancing equalizes groups: it can rule out certain confounding variables such as practice effects Tested more than once under a given condition: A. Reverse Counterbalancing i. For example, sequence of conditions CADB will after be tested as BDAC. ii. Disadvantage is that people may catch on and predict condition. B. Block Randomization Carryover Effects- when some sequences produce effects that are different from those produced by other sequences. • Where sequence AB does not equal BA Asymmetric Transfer For example: A -> B and B -> A ‘A’ might have a clue to get the trick on how to solve all puzzles and ‘B’ does not. So the first sequence group has an advantage over the second. Developmental Research: Looking at changes in behaviour that occur with age. Control Problems in Developmental Research a. Cross-sectional Study (Between-Subject Design) • People from different age groups tested at same time once. • Advantage: Quick acquisition of data • Disadvantage: Cohort Effect: o Cohort- a group that are born in the same time period.  People from one age may differ in historical influences.  i.e. Different attitudes may be manifested in decade of teen years.  CONFOUNDING VARIABLE b. Longitudinal Study (Within-Subject Design) • Same person/people tested over time • Disadvantage: Attrition: loss of subjects d
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