PSYCH2030 Intro to Research Methods Lecture 3 13-01-24 7:04 PM
Test 1 in 2 weeks (Chapter 5, 6, 7)
**For Test, you will NOT be tested on:**
• Research Examples
• Grey Boxes
***Hint: 95% of notes covered from lecture will be on Test 1***
Balanced Latin-Square Design
This assures that:
a. Every condition occurs equally often in every sequential position.
b. Every condition precedes and follows every other condition exactly
Note: The number of subjects you use must be equal to or a multiple of the
number of rows (sequences)
**Will not be responsible to make a Latin-Square Design, but just know
Counterbalancing equalizes groups: it can rule out certain confounding
variables such as practice effects
Tested more than once under a given condition:
A. Reverse Counterbalancing
i. For example, sequence of conditions CADB will after be tested
ii. Disadvantage is that people may catch on and predict
B. Block Randomization
Carryover Effects- when some sequences produce effects that are different
from those produced by other sequences.
• Where sequence AB does not equal BA Asymmetric Transfer
For example: A -> B and B -> A
‘A’ might have a clue to get the trick on how to solve all puzzles and ‘B’ does
not. So the first sequence group has an advantage over the second.
Developmental Research: Looking at changes in behaviour that occur with
Control Problems in Developmental Research
a. Cross-sectional Study (Between-Subject Design)
• People from different age groups tested at same time once.
• Advantage: Quick acquisition of data
• Disadvantage: Cohort Effect:
o Cohort- a group that are born in the same time period.
People from one age may differ in historical influences.
i.e. Different attitudes may be manifested in decade of
b. Longitudinal Study (Within-Subject Design)
• Same person/people tested over time
• Disadvantage: Attrition: loss of subjects d