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PSYC 2030 Study Guide - Final Guide: B-Real, Psychophysics, Reinforcement


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2030
Professor
Rebecca Jubis
Study Guide
Final

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Intro to Research Methods Lecture 8 13-03-21 4:49 PM
Chapter 11- Small n Designs
“Single-Subject Designs”
NO Control Group
Rationales
1. When you use large N’s, group averages are taken and they are
contaminated by individual differences.
2. Sometimes it’s necessary because subjects with specific requirements are
hard to find.
**Will not be tested on learning or psychophysics**
**This material is not to be confused for Case Studies, that is classified
under Descriptive Research**
3 Required Elements
1. Target Behaviour- must be operationalized.
2. Establish a baseline of responding- frequency of rate of responding.
3. Introduce treatment and continue to monitor the behaviour.
**Not to be confused with pre- post- studies**
Simplest
A-B Design
A (baseline) - B (treatment) design
Withdrawal Design
A-B-A Design
A (baseline) -B (treatment) - A (withdraw treatment) design
A-B-A-B Design
A (baseline) – B (treatment)- A (withdraw treatment) – B (treatment)
Problems
1. Sometimes a withdrawal design isn’t appropriate, especially if the
“treatment” involves teaching a skill.
2. This design can be unethical if the target behaviour is a harmful one.
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Multiple Baseline Designs (in applied research)
Baseline measures are established and then treatment is introduced
at different times. (treatment is not withdrawn)
3 Types- baselines can be established for:
1. The same behaviour in 2 or more people
2. 2 or more different behaviours in the same subject (person).
3. The same behaviour in the same subject but in 2 or more
different settings.
The effectiveness of a treatment is inferred from the fact that as its
introduced at different times, the behaviour responds only at that time and
not before.
Other Designs
A-B-C-B Design
A= baseline
B= contingent reinforcement
C= non-contingent reinforcement
B= contingent reinforcement
A-A1-B-A1-B Design (used for drug treatments)
A=Baseline
A1=Placebo
B= Real Drug
A1=Placebo
B= Real Drug
Changing Criterion Design (similar to “shaping”)
is where the criterion for getting positive reinforcement begins at a
modest level and becomes more stringent as the study progresses.
changing frequency of response that requires you to receive the
reinforcer.
Problems
1. Generalizability.
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