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chapter3research.odt

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2030
Professor
Rebecca Jubis
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 3 Varieties of Psychological Research Basic vs.Applied – basic research- describing, predicting, and explaining the fundamental principles of behaviour and mental processes – applied research has direct and immediate relevance to the solution of real world problems – it is sometimes believed that applied research is more valuable because an applied study seems to concern more relevant problems and to tackle them directly – it could be argued that the principles and procedures can potentially be used in a variety of applied situations even though these uses aren’t considered when the research is being done – basic research is the frequent target of politicians – in some cases what is learned in basic research can be useful in an applied project that is from a completely different topic area – serial position effect- tendency to recall info from beginning/end of list better than middle – if its true that basic research often leads to applications,its true that applied research outcomes frequently have relevance for basic research, providing evidences that refute or support theories Laboratory vs Field Research – laboratory research allows the researcher greater control – conditions of the study can be specified more precisely and participants can be selected and placed in different conditions of the study more systematically ' – field research the environment more closely matches the situations we encounter in daily living – field research is often applied research and laboratory research is often basic research – lab research is often criticized for being artificial – mundane realism refers to how closely a study mirrors real life experiences – experimental realism concerns the extent to which a research study, has an impact on the subjects, forces them to take matters seriously, and involves them in procedures – experimental realism of a study counts more than mundane – strengths of field research: conditions in the field often cannot be duplicated in the laboratory – second reason to do field research is to confirm findings of laboratory studies and correct misconceptions or oversimplifications that might derive from the safe confines of a laboratory – 3 reason;to make discoveries that could result in difference in lives of ppl being studied – fourth, although field research is ordinarily associated with applied research, it is also a good setting in which to do basic research – besides providing increased control, researchers often prefer laboratory because of problems with informed consent and privacy – in lab research, it is relatively easy to stick close to the ethics code – in field, it is difficult and sometimes impossible to provide informed consent and debriefing, and in some situations the research procedures might be considered invasion of privacy Qualitative vs Quantitative – quantitative research the data are collected and presented in the form of numbers- averages, percentages, graphs, tables – qualitative research often includes studies that collect interview information, it sometimes involves detailed case studies or observational studies – the results are presented as analytical narratives that summarize the projects main outcomes – results in qualitative research often take longer to describe and include quotes that are said to represent typical responses – empirical questions have two important features: they must be answerable with data, qualitative and/or quantitative and their terms must be precisely defined Operational Definitions – operationism;terminology of science must be totally objective and precise and all concepts should be defined in terms of set of operations to be performed- operational definitions – for psychologists the problem with operationism is how to accomplish it in practice when dealing with such complex psychological phenomena – despite this problems with the strict use of operational definitions, the concept has been of value of psychology by forcing researchers to define clearly the terms of their studies – allow experiments to be replicated – converging operations- refers to the idea that our understanding of some behavioural phenomena is increased when a series of investigations, all using slightly different operational definitions and experimental procedures, converge on a common conclusion – empirical questions evolve out of:everyday observations of behaviour,need to solve practical problem, attempts to support or refute theory, unanswered questions from study just completed Developing Research from observations of behaviour and serendipity – memory is better for incomplete rather than completed tasks- Zeigarnik effect – serendipity- the act of discovering something while looking for something else entirely, has been a source of numerous important events in the history of science Developing Research from Theory The nature of a theory – theory in psychology is a set of statements about some phenomenon that a) best summarizes existing empirical knowledge of phenomenon b) organizes this knowledge in form of precise statements of relationships among variables c) provides tentative explanation for phenomenon d) serves as the basis for making predictions about behaviour – theories also differ in terms of their level of precision, with some being stated strictly in mathematical te
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