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PSYC 2030 - Test 3 Notes (Winter 2012)

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York University
PSYC 2030
Rebecca Jubis

PSYC 2030 Test 3 Notes Chapter 11: Small N Design The rationale is that when you use large N, group averages are taken and are contaminated by individual differences between subjects. The data might not have validity for any specific subject. • Individual-Subject Validity is the extent to which the general outcome of a research study characterizes the behavior of the subjects in the study.Alack for it can produce erroneous conclusions about behavior. Practical problems with large N designs often occur with the difficulties of finding large quantities of subjects to test experiments on. Applied Behavior Analysis refers to any research using various methods to evaluate the effectiveness of conditioning procedures in bringing about changes in the rate of response of some behavior. (1) The target behavior must be operationally defined. (2) The baseline is the initial state of a small N design. The behavior recorded is the typical rate of response (a “zero” level essentially) in studies. (3) After the baseline is found, treatment must be given to the subject and regularly monitored to observe any changes in the given baseline. • A-B Design is a simple single-subject design in which a baseline period (A) is followed by a treatment period (B). • Withdrawal Design refers to any small N design in which treatment is in place for a time and is removed to determine if the rate of behavior returns to baseline. • A-B-ADesign follows the same pattern as theA-B Design, but the exception is that the treatment is removed (second A) after it has been in effect for a while. • A-B-A-B Design is preferred by researchers over theA-B-ADesign because there is confidence that the treatment is causing the change. It follows theA-B-ADesign, but there is a second treatment period established (second B). Multiple Baseline Design is a small N design in which treatment is introduced at different times while establishing (a) the behavior of more than one individual, (b) more than one behavior in the same individual, or (c) the behavior of an individual in more than one setting. Changing Criterion Design is a small N design in which the criterion for receiving reinforcement begins at a modest level and becomes more severe as the study progresses. It is inspired by the operant procedure of shaping that is used to shape behavior as they become progressively close to a final desired behavior through reinforcing. • Social validity is the extent to which an applied behavior analysis program has the potential to improve society, whether its value is perceived by the study’s participants and whether participants actually use the program. A-B-C-B Design compares contingent reinforcement (B) with non-contingent reinforcement (C). It allows the researcher to separate the effects of reinforcement and contingency. • A-A 1B-A -B1evaluates placebo effects.A is a1condition in the sequence in which a placebo is given while the real drug is given in B. • Alternating Treatments Design compares two or more separate forms of treatment for changing some behavior in the same study and for the same subject(s). • Single-Subject Designs face problems with external validity because a treatment proven successful with one subject may not have the same results if generalized in the population. • They also face criticisms on using visual inspection of data rather than statistics as well as reliance on DV. It cannot adequately test for interactive effects at the same time. Case study refers to detailed description and analysis of a single individual. The method is praised for detailed analysis not found in other research strategies. However, there is problems regarding limitations for experimental control groups and biases. Chapter 1: Scientific Thinking in Psychology "Ways of Knowing" by Pierce. (1) Authority, (2) Logic and Reasoning, (3) Experience or Empiricism or direct observation. Problems with experiences is that they are limited to our own interpretations and may be influenced by "social cognitive biases." Whenever we accept the validity of information from a source that we judge to be expert or influential in some way, then we are relying on authority as a source of our knowledge. • Apriori method is a way of knowing in which a person develops a belief by reasoning and reaching agreement with others who are convinced of the merits of the reasoned argument. Empiricism is the process of learning things through direct observation or experience and reflects on those experiences. Belief Perseverance is the unwillingness to consider any evidence that contradicts a strongly held view. • Confirmation bias is the tendency to search out and pay special attention to information that supports one’s beliefs while ignoring information that contradicts a belief. • Availability Heuristic is the social cognition bias in which we experience an unusual or memorable event and overestimate how often it was characterized. Determinism is an assumption that all events have causes that can be discovered through science. It can be strict or statistical. Discoverability is another assumption that the causes of events can be discovered by applying scientific methods. • Statistical Determinism is an assumption that behavioral events can be predicted with a probability greater than chance. Objectivity is said to exist when observations can be verified by more than one observer. Introspection is a method in which an individual would complete some task and then describe the events occurring in consciousness while performing the task. Data-Driven is a belief that conclusions about behavior should be data collected scientifically. Hypothesis is an educated guess about a relationship between variables that is then tested empirically. • Theory is a set of statements that summarizes and organizes existing information about some phenomenon. It provides an explanation for the phenomenon and serves as a basis for making predictions to be tested empirically. Falsification is a research strategy that emphasizes putting theories to the test by trying to disprove or falsify them. Pseudoscience is applied to any field of inquiry that appears to use scientific methods and tries hard to give that impression, but is actually based on inadequate, unscientific methods, and makes claims that are generally false. • Anecdotal evidence is evidence from a single case that illustrates a phenomenon. If relied on exclusively, faulty
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