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CH 17.docx

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York University
PSYC 2110
Gillian Wu

CH 17: EXTRAFAMILIAL INFLUENCES: TV, COMPUTERS, SCHOOL AND PEERS  Extrafamilial influence: social agencies other than the family that influence a child’s ABC development EFFECTS OF TV ON CHILD DEV  In moderate doses, TV has not shown to cause a decline on a child’s cognitive or social dev; what is more important is what the children are watching and if they interpret what they see DEVELOPMENT OF TV LITERACY  TV literacy: refers to a person’s ability to understand how info is conveyed on TV – this includes processing the content of a show (understanding the story line), and interpreting the form of a message on the show (like how the sound effects and zooms are used to understand the content)  2 year olds show a video deficit: they learn less from TV models then from human interaction  Children younger then 8-9 enjoy TV for the zooms, loud noise and fast-paced axn – they will turn away when they see adults or a quiet setting SOME POTENTIALLY UNDESIRABLE EFFECTS OF TV  Children and adolescence who watch a lot of violent TV are more likely to be aggressive and hostile among their peers  The effect of the violence and TV is also reciprocal, so by being more aggressive, these children are also more likely to continue watching more violent TV (which promotes further aggression)  Mean-world beliefs: children that watch violent TV, and are not aggression can end up having this belief – view the world as a violent place inhabited by ppl who rely on aggressive solns to solve their interpersonal problems  Children are also desensitized to violence when they watch violent TV – so they are more tolerable to real life aggression  Read about the next effect on slide 8-10 How to reduce the harmful effects of TV  Parents should monitor what their child watches: try to interest them in watching prosocial and educational shows  Watch TV with your child (normally parents only watch TV with their kids when they watch the news or sports, so you should watch with them when their watching an action show TELEVISION AS AN EDUCATIONAL TOOL  Refer to slides 11-14 CHILD DEV IN THE COMPUTER AGE COMPUTERS IN THE CLASSROOM  Refer to slide 18  Example CAI programs include drills that start with a students current skill level and builds from what the student knows to get to higher levels  There are also guided tutorials CAI – children play highly motivated games to discover important concepts or principals o Using both the drills and tutorials has shown to lea children to increasing their math and reading skills, even at elementary school levels  Students can also use the computer to increase their writing/grammatical skills, since they are more inclined to edit their work when they type it vs. when they hand write it  University students have online courses which encourage them to participant in the class, even when their too shy to engage in public speaking  Computers are not shown to make students socially unskilled; it actually promotes peer interaction BEYOND THE CLASSROOM: BENEFITS OF INTERNET EXPOSURE  Using a computer at home can lead to increased reading skills  Online communication with friends promotes closer r/s – ppl free more free to say things online then to say things face-to-face  Adolescence can used the net to get info on health related aspects, like sex and sexual risks CONCERNS ABOUT COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY  Concerns about video games – refer to slide 19  Concerns about social inequality: at one pt boys were more likely to use computers than girls were; this is not the case any more  Children that visit porn sites are more likely to think of sex as just recreation and are more likely to objectify women  Other concerns include the net being the primary way of recruitment for hate organizations/cults  Cyberbullying is also increasing and can be worse then face-to-face bullying SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT  Intellectual performance is in part based on the amount of schooling a student has – not based solely on the child’s age DETERMINANTS OF EFFECTIVE SCHOOLING  Effective school: one that promotes academic achievement, social skills, politeness, good behaviours, low absence, etc o Overall, some schools are shown to be more effective then other schools Factors that influence effective schooling  If a school has a higher concentration of students that are more motivated to learn  School climate: including how safe students feel and how much support students receive from school personnel  Read what promotes academic achievement on slide 24 The “Goodness of Fit” bw students and schools  Aptitude-treatment interaction (ATI): where characteristics of the student and the school environment interact to affect student outcomes – a given educational practice for some students may not be effective w. others  Individualistic children are more likely to be engaged by fast-paced individual learning; whereas children from collectivistic cultures likely benefit and enjoy working when they are working in groups  If there is a mismatch b/w ones school environment and their developmental needs, the child can loose interest in academics (which is sometimes seen in the transition to secondary school) DO OUR SCHOOLS MEET THE NEEDS OF ALL OF OUR CHILDREN? Educational Experience of Ethnic minorities  Blacks, Latin’s and aboriginals are shown to underperform Americans  Asian’s are likely to over perform Americans o Why?  Parental attitude: Minority parents are less knowledgeable and less involved in school sponsored activities – this leads children to thinking that school is not very important o But when minority parents are involved their children are more confident abt school and seem to do better  Parent-Peer Influences: Academic success is associated w. authoritative parenting; but this can be undermined if ones peers devalue academics – i.e. Black peers that devalue school will put pressure on the others even if they receive adequate parenting o Asians actually foster from the authoritarian approach, since their parents also put emphasis on school and have high standards  Teacher Expectancies: teachers bring stereotypes to their teaching that can lead to some students getting a better classroom experience than others Educating students with special needs – on a slide 25 HOW WELL EDUCATED ARE OUR CHILDREN? A CROSS-CULTURE COMPARISON  They are large difference among the world with children's math, reading and other school subjects  Cross-culturally, children have similar IQ’s when they enter school and perform equally well on info tests that don’t cover topics discussed in school o Why the large gap b/w Asians and Americans in school then?  Classroom instructions: Asians attend school for longer hours, and use more class-time “on-task” than Americans  Parental involvement: Asian parents are committed to the educational process and even when their children excel, they are still less satisfied with the child’s performance than Americans; they also have more communication w. teachers whereas Americans generally only communicate w. teachers during parent-teacher conferences  Student involvement: Asians are assigned/complete more hw  Strong emphasis
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