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CH 16.docx

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York University
PSYC 2110
Gillian Wu

CH 16: THE FAMILY UNDERSTANDING THE FAMILY  The most important role of the family is to allow their young to go through socialization (process that allows children to acquire beliefs, motives, values and behaviours deemed appropriate for older members of society)  Children were once thought to only develop based on how their mother raised them; now we know that children are affected by both their families, cultural and community influences (based on Brofenbrenner’s ecological theory)  Traditional nuclear families: consists of a mother, father and their children o This family system consists of interactions of father-mother, infant- mother, and father-infant r/s (and each of the these interactions is influenced by the 3 persons attitudes/behaviours)  Coparenting: when parents mutually support each other and fn as a co-op parenting team – hard for couples w. martial problems and other life stress  Extended family: when the traditional family lives w. other relatives  With the dev of one family mem, the dynamics of the family also change (so the family is a dynamic/changing system)  Single parent family: family system consisting of only one parent – most are headed by women, but the rate for a male single parent has been rising  Blended/reconstituted families: families that result from remarriage – include a parent, child and step-relations (often blend multiple children from 2 families into the new family system) PARENTAL SOCIALIZATION DURING CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENCE 2 MAJOR DIMENSIONS OF PARENTING  Parental acceptance/responsiveness: refers to the amount of support/affection the parents display – they are warm and praise their children, but can become quite critical when the child misbehaves o Low a/r: often criticize, punish and ignore child; rarely communicate that their child is loved or valued – can lead to clinical depression and adjustment problems later in life  Parental demandingness/control: amount of supervisions parents undertake w. their children; controlling parents place limits on their child’s freedom and impose many demands o Low d/c: much less restrictive parents; allow the child to pursue their interest and make decisions about their activities FOUR PATTERNS OF PARENTING  Read about this on starting on slide 7 in lecture notes  Authoritative parenting is shown to be the best for a child’s dev o Parents are warm/accepting; they are more fair and reasonable than the authoritative type which leads to more compliance; they also allow their child to have some autonomy  Parents also differ in their exercise of behavioural control: regulating a child’s conduct through discipline and monitoring their conduct i.e. grounding or giving time outs  Parents also differ in the exercise of psychological control: influencing a child’s behaviour by psych tactics like withholding affection or inducing guilt on the child o More +ve dev occurs when behavioural controls are used rather than psych  Parent-effects model: model of family influence where the parents (particularly mother) is believed to influence their child (influence runs one way)  Child-effects model: model of family influence where the child is believed to influence their parents; so children that are easygoing are enable their parents to be authoritative  Transactional model: model of family influence where the parent and child are believed to influence each other reciprocally o Parents influence the child more than the child influencing the parent, but children do also affect their parents (parents are not the sole cause to how a child turns out) SOCIAL CLASS AND ETHNIC VARIATIONS IN CHILD REARING  Economically disadvantaged parents stress obedience from their kids, they are more authoritarian, reason w. children less and are also less warm/affectionate Reason for this  Parents w. $$$ problems  more depressed  increase martial conflict  martial conflict leads to problems in being involved parents  child has a loss of emotional security in their parents which leads to –ve dev  Areas that are collectivistic are likely to stress more control on their children that other ethnicities; however this authoritarian parenting works well with these cultures o There is no single pattern of parenting that is optimal for all cultures THE QUEST FOR AUTONOMY: RENEGOTIATING THE PARENT-CHILD R/S DURING ADOLESCENCE  Autonomy: the capacity to make decisions and manage ones life w.out dependence  More arguments occur during adolescence than any other time for parents and child – although this declines with age o Asian parents tend to exert their authority for a lot longer than European parents do THE INFLUENCE OF SIBLINGS AND SIBLING R/S  As soon as a new baby arrives, sibling rivalry already starts to occur – the older child will become more competitive, jealous and resent the new child o This can be minimized if the older child continues to get affection from the parents, and if the parents continue to keep the same routine w. the child SIBLING RELATIONSHIPS OVER THE COURSE OF CHILDHOOD  Children quickly adjust to having a younger sibling  When younger, siblings are more likely to display conflict, but as they grow, the conflicts should start to decline  Parents that have martial conflict can lead to their children also having conflict w. each other  Some conflicts are actually useful for siblings – it helps the siblings work on their constructive problem solving skills to resolve their disagreements POSITIVE CONTRIBUTIONS OF SIBLING R/S’  Older siblings often act as caregivers for the younger kid – they serve as a teacher, playmate, advocate and source of emotional support  Emotional support: when a youn
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