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CH 13.docx

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PSYC 2110
Gillian Wu

CH 13: DEVELOPMENT OF THE SELF AND SOCIAL COGNITION DEVELOPMENT OF THE SELF-CONCEPT  Self: combo of physical + psych attributes that is unique to an individual  Social cognition: thinking done about the thoughts, feelings, motives and behaviours that a person displays and others display  Neonates have some capability of distinguishing their self from others; have proprioceptive feedback: they are able to locate parts of their body in space i.e. being able to put their hands in their mouth or imitating the facial expressions someone else is doing o Other theorist disagree and think infants cant tell the difference b.w the environment and their self SELF-DIFFERENTATION IN INFANCY  Infants around 2-3 months have a sense of personal agency: they understand that they are responsible for some of the events that fascinate them i.e. sucking their thumb SELF-RECONGITION IN INFANCY  Once infants know that they are independent from other things, they can start developing their self-concept (one’s perception of their unique attributes/traits)…but when does this happen? o By 5 months infants can discriminate their face from another babies face when looking in a mirror or videotape  Self-recognition: ability to recognize oneself in a mirror or videotape o Tested by putting rouge on an infants face: if when they look in the mirror, they attempt to wipe it off, then they have the ability to self- recognize (start doing this at 18-24 months, even in places where infants have no prior experience w. mirrors  Present self: 2-3 year olds have a stable idea of the self, but are unaware that past representations of the self have implications for the present  Extended self: 4-5, children can start integrating the past, current and unknown future self-representations into a notion of the self that endures over time (they recognize the self is stable, but that things that happened in the past may not happen in the future [like seeing a sticker on their head a week ago, and knowing the sticker is no longer there])  Social stimulation and high attachment with parents can lead to increased knowledge of the self for children of 2-3  Parenting styles that stress autonomy also increase a child’s self-awareness, whereas styles stressing interdependence leads to less children being able to reach self-recognition by 18-20 months  Once children develop self-recognition, the first thing they start doing is categorizing themselves and others (known as the categorical self) o Start using age and gender to categorize things, i.e. “I am a big boy” or “Jennie is a good girl” “WHO AM I” RESPONSES OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN  Although children in preschool cannot express their knowledge of the self in trait-like terminology, when asked contrasting forced-choice statements that require few verbal skills, they can quickly characterize themselves on psychological dimensions (they cannot answer open ended questions like “Who am I” yet CONCEPTIONS OF SELF IN MIDDLE CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENCE  As children get older they become aware that they are not the same person in many different situations  False self behaviour: acting in ways not consistent with your true self – ppl who display this feel least confident that they know who they truly are  Having inconsistent self-portrayals in different situations is very bothersome to kids around 15; as they get older it becomes less bothersome WHO AM I to BE? FORGING AN IDENTITY  Major developmental hurdle for adolescents: forming an identity o Identity: a mature self-definition; firm sense of who you are, where you are heading and how you will fit into society  To assess identity, you can use a structured interview – identity is based on whether children have explored various alternatives and made firm commitments to an occupation, religion, sexual orientation & political values o Refer to slide 64 for the identity statuses DEVELOPMENTAL TRENDS IN IDENTITY FORMATION  Identity issues are most important when you’re an adolescent – establishing a clear identity during this time is critical for later development (id formation doesn’t occur until late adolescent, like in college/uni)  Majority of uni kids are in the diffused or foreclosed state  You are able to get a strong sense of identity in one area in life, even if you still have confusion of identity in other areas IDENTITY FORMATION AND ADJUSTMENT  People that are id achievers have a high self-esteem and are less self- conscious or preoccupied w. personal concerns than the other id types  College students in diffusion can lead to a lower self-esteem, depression, have a sense of hopelessness and also suicide INFLUENCES ON IDENTITY FORMATION  Cognitive dev plays a role in id achievement – being more intellectually mature can lead you to raising and resolving id issues better than others  Parenting influences: authoritative leads to foreclosure; rejection leads to diffusion; having a good r/s w. parents leads children to being moratorium or achievement in identity, since they can easily communicate w. their parents  Scholastic influence: being in uni/college can lead to obtaining achievement in occupation/career goals; but does not help w. forming a clear id of your political or religious identities  Id formation is also influenced by ones social and historical contexts (in many countries, id formation is highly based on foreclosure since you just end up doing the same thing that your parents did in life) SELF-ESTEEM: THE EVALUATIVE COMPONENT OF SELF  Self-esteem: assessment of the qualities that make up your self concept to evaluate your worth as a person o Note: self-concept refers to how a child views their qualities and sense of self, whereas self esteem refers to an evaluation and the child’s satisfaction w. their qualities ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT OF SELF-ESTEEM  Children that have a secure attachment to their parents describe themselves as more favourable and more socially skilled than others (age 4-5)  Self esteem is higher when you have a secure attachment to both parents  Children 4-7 have an inflated self perception – they rate themselves +ve in all domains; by 8 they start to rate themselves similar to other ppl’s rating  Looking glass-self: self-image is constructed based, to a large extent, on how others perceive and react to a child’s behaviour (so a child rates themselves based on how they think others evaluate them)  Relational self-worth: feelings of self-esteem based highly on ones interpersonal r/s’s (starts happening during adolescence) o In this case, self-worth is rated differently in different domains, and all of these aspects together contribute to a global self-esteem  Typically girls who have a high self esteem have supportive r/s’s w. friends; males have a high self-esteem based on their ability to successfully influence their friends o Females w. low self-esteem are associated w. a failure to win friend’s approval; males self-esteem is linked w. a lack of romantic competence (failure to win the affection of girls)  A child’s view on their competence gradually declines as they proceed to high school years but when they enter early adulthood, self-esteem starts to rise once again until they become elder o Having more stressors in life is a good indication of if ones self-esteem will lower i.e. a child who is entering highschool, going through puberty, parent divorce and beginning to date can all account for a lower self-esteem  Read about social contributors to self esteem on slide 67 DEVELOPMENT OF ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION & ACADEMIC SELF-CONCEPT  Achievement motivation: willingness to strive to succeed at challenging tasks and meet high standards of accomplishment  Even as infants, children are motivated to master their environment (known as mastery motive: an inborn motive to explore, understand and control our environment) EARLY ORIGINS OF ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION  Studies have been done with 1-5 year olds to find out when children develop the capacity to evaluate their accomplishments against performance standards (which is n
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