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Midterm

Lecture 2 - TEST OUTLINE - Prenatal Development

8 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2110
Professor
Maxine Wintre

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Class Notes – September 30 , 2010 October 21Test - 60 multiple choice questions o Based on primarily on textbooks, overlap with lectures - 30-40 marks worth of short answer questions o Definitions, provide examples (primarily based on the lectures, overlap with textbooks/film) Prenatal Development Zygote - Fertilized ovum/egg by a sperm st - Called zygote for the 1 2 weeks Germinal Period - 1 2 weeks; time period of which fertilized egg is implanted in the uterine wall - Fertilization takes place in the fallopian tube Embryo Embryonic Period - Developing organism is known as an embryo - Lasts from 2 weeks after fertilization to the 8 week after conception (6 weeks) - There are marks of the human developing form - Lots of cell division - Embryo will appear very top-headed (disproportion to the trunk of the development) - Because development is cephaudal development until adolescences - Ears jaw mouth are visible; limbs, spinal cord are developing and nervous system - Most organs exist in primitive form - Heart begins to beat; communication between embryo and mother’s body is established by the placenta - Through placenta, there’s transfer of oxygen, vitamins, hormones, food from mother to the embryonic system - Waste products will pass from embryonic system through to the mother - Semi-permeable - Most miscarriages take place in this period - Most women don’t know they’re pregnant until the 6 – 8 week th th - 25% miscarriages without the women knowing she was pregnant Fetus - After the embryonic period - 8 week following conception until birth Neonate - At birth, the newborn is called a neonate - At the time of birth, one might notice congenital defects Inherited Vs Congenital - Congenital defects = exist at birth, might be hereditary (down syndrome, tay-sachs), due to other influence that occurs during the gestation period (9 months prior to birth), anything that occurs during the birthing process (child is deprived of oxygen = brain damage) 1 Class Notes – September 30 , 2010 - Congenital is a bigger term, it includes inherited, and includes events that happen during pregnancy / at the time of birth (both nature and nurture and interaction of the 2) - Inherited = genetic that’s from parents to the developing organism (only nature side) Teratogens - Environmental factors which can interfere with normal development to produce congenital defects 5 Characteristics 1. Critical period - “critical period” = particular time interval during which the developing organism apparently is susceptible to that teratogen (usually time interval during which a system/organ/part of the newborn is developing rapidly) - Time when lung develops rapidly, they might be at risk during that time interval - Whatever effects there are, are very difficult to change - Harry Harlow’s monkey = wired monkey mother with the bottle, hairy cloth monkey mother o If put deprived monkeys with juvenile monkeys, juveniles act the therapists and mediate the devastated monkey - Sensitive period = can be therapeutically addressed o Damage can be undone, but must work very hard to undone it - There will be congenital defects that are very hard to repair if affected during the critical/sensitive period 2. Specificity - Particular teratogens affect particular kinds of organs/hearts/function - Teratogens have differentiated effects 3. Individual differences - Some people are more susceptible to a teratogen - This might be a result of a genetic make up - Genes might affect how susceptible to an environmental teratogen - Unknown if it’s the result of the mother or the fetus’ susceptibility of the teratogen - Don’t know if you should consider to abort, because don’t know if fetus is exposed to teratogen due to mother 4. Not always manifested in mother - Whatever it happens, the mother might not manifest the problem at all, that doesn’t mean the fetus isn’t affected - The mother might be immune to it, but doesn’t mean the fetus is not affected 5. Dose - How much exposure/the dose of the teratogen - If fetus experiences it over period of time, it might have more negative effects - There might be accumulated effects from teratogens Teratology = study of the effects of teratogens Maternal age - Mother might be too old/too young - Old = over 35 young = under 18 - Down syndrome increases with maternal age - The ova are present in the women from birth on 2 Class Notes – September 30 , 2010 - Ova are aging. Whatever environmental variable the mother is exposed to, can have effects on those ovum over the year - Male produces sperm on a daily basis - Accumulation of environmental effects on the ovum as the women age Maternal Nutrition - Diet (what mother eat) if a women experiences severe malnutrition during the pregnancy, this can cause the death of the embryo/fetus/premature delivery - If women doesn’t eat enough Iodine, this will cause mental retardation in the developing embryo/fetus - All the salt has iodine Maternal Stress - Emotions apt through the nervous system, which regulates the secretion of hormones (adrenaline, testosterone) - Hormones can pass through the placenta - Research here is correlational (no cause/effect) o If mother suffers from undue stress, the neonate will have low birth rate o Could be highly emotional mother, doesn’t take care of herself, doesn’t watch her diet, self-prophecy Rh Incompatibility - Rh factor in our blood, Rh + or Rh – - Mother is found Rh- , they will be advised to have 1 child from years ago - The problem only exists if the mother is Rh- o Rh- is a recessive gene - If Rh- mother, and developing organism is Rh+, mother will manufacture Rh antibodies, through placenta and destroy the embryo red blood cells of fetus - Baby will be born as “blue baby” = die or need entire blood transfusion in order to survive - Medical advance that changed life for these Rh- and children is = “rhogan injection” given to the mother and destroys Rh antibodies that mother’s body is building up - If antibodies are destroyed, then subsequent pregnancy, she won’t attack the organism st - With 1 pregnancy, if mother is Rh- and fetus is Rh+, then its okay, because mother doesn’t have enough time to build up these antibodies - But subsequent fetus will be in danger because antibodies will start to build up - Environmental = Rh antibodies that is destroying the fetus Maternal Diseases - German measel, rubella o If mother is exposed to rubella, she doenst have to show the symptoms o Within the moth after conception, chances of 50% that the developing embryo fetus will be malformed o Malformed = child will be born typically blind, deaf (what’s rapidly developing during that time) o Some still born, miscarriage, born prematurely, liver problem, heart problem, mental retardation - If exposed 3 months after conception = 0% that there will be any malformation - Notice the critical period - Syphilis, HIV/AIDS 6-15% North America, 50% Africa - If women has HIV is pregnancy, 20-30% that they will pass the virus to developing organism - Disease progresses quickly in newborns/infants, result in diarrhea, respiratory problems, brain damage, seizures, short life span Drugs, Chemicals & Hormones 3 Class Notes – September 30 , 2010h Thalidomide - Over the counter drug, available in 1959. Given to women who are experiencing morning sickness - With children malformed, arms growing out in random area - Effects during the 1 8 weeks of pregnancy, critical period affects the development of limbs (specificity) - Quickly taken off the drug list, but has returned - Now used to treardlapersy, and side effects of chemotherapy - In India, Rio, 3 world countries, babies are still being born after taking these drugs Antibiotics - Some affects skeletal growth - Prozac (infants of the mother will be more jittery, have breathing problems, even if mom goes off Prozac in 3 rd trimester, there still will be some consequences) Hormones - Ex: DES (Diethylstilbesterol) - Female sex hormone, given to women who experienced multiple miscarriages, enabled the women to carry the fetus (to avoid miscarriages for pregnant women) - It worked, everything seems to be fine until the female offspring reach to 20 o High correlation between cervical cancer in young women whose mother took DES - Male offspring has high risk of genital cancer - DES was prescribed for women from 1941 to 1971 Smoking - Correlation effects - Higher incidents of pre-mature birth, low birth weight in regards to maternal smoking - Dose factors (how much women smoke) - Some relation with father smoking - Might affect sperm production, be secreted in the semen - Infants of smokers are hyperactive Fetal Alcohol Syndrome F.A.S - David Smith, Ken Jones - Some infants are being born with abnormality, seem to have similar abnormalities - Mentally retarded, small babies, had failure to thrive (aren’t developing normally with normal nutrition), sunken cheek bones, cant extend arms/joints, upturn noses, heart problems, behavioural/cognitive deficit - Trace this fact = moms drinking - Mothers who drink are also smokers, and are also malnurturished Marijuana, LSD - Marijuana is stored in the fat cell of the body for 1 year - LSD is stored in the fat cell of the body for 7 years - Crack/cocaine are worst than LSD Paternal influences - Damaging sperm cells - Related to substances excreted in the semen, which enter to women’s circulation through the vaginal wall - They can contaminate the fetus through the placenta 4 Class Notes – September 30 , 2010 - Agent orange = used in the Vietnamese war Radiation (X-Rays) - Radiation can affect the developing organism - Radiation accumulates
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