Study Guides (248,623)
Canada (121,639)
York University (10,209)
Psychology (1,203)
PSYC 2110 (51)

Lecture 2 - TEST OUTLINE - Prenatal Development

8 Pages

Course Code
PSYC 2110
Maxine Wintre

This preview shows pages 1,2 and half of page 3. Sign up to view the full 8 pages of the document.
Class Notes – September 30 , 2010 October 21Test - 60 multiple choice questions o Based on primarily on textbooks, overlap with lectures - 30-40 marks worth of short answer questions o Definitions, provide examples (primarily based on the lectures, overlap with textbooks/film) Prenatal Development Zygote - Fertilized ovum/egg by a sperm st - Called zygote for the 1 2 weeks Germinal Period - 1 2 weeks; time period of which fertilized egg is implanted in the uterine wall - Fertilization takes place in the fallopian tube Embryo Embryonic Period - Developing organism is known as an embryo - Lasts from 2 weeks after fertilization to the 8 week after conception (6 weeks) - There are marks of the human developing form - Lots of cell division - Embryo will appear very top-headed (disproportion to the trunk of the development) - Because development is cephaudal development until adolescences - Ears jaw mouth are visible; limbs, spinal cord are developing and nervous system - Most organs exist in primitive form - Heart begins to beat; communication between embryo and mother’s body is established by the placenta - Through placenta, there’s transfer of oxygen, vitamins, hormones, food from mother to the embryonic system - Waste products will pass from embryonic system through to the mother - Semi-permeable - Most miscarriages take place in this period - Most women don’t know they’re pregnant until the 6 – 8 week th th - 25% miscarriages without the women knowing she was pregnant Fetus - After the embryonic period - 8 week following conception until birth Neonate - At birth, the newborn is called a neonate - At the time of birth, one might notice congenital defects Inherited Vs Congenital - Congenital defects = exist at birth, might be hereditary (down syndrome, tay-sachs), due to other influence that occurs during the gestation period (9 months prior to birth), anything that occurs during the birthing process (child is deprived of oxygen = brain damage) 1 Class Notes – September 30 , 2010 - Congenital is a bigger term, it includes inherited, and includes events that happen during pregnancy / at the time of birth (both nature and nurture and interaction of the 2) - Inherited = genetic that’s from parents to the developing organism (only nature side) Teratogens - Environmental factors which can interfere with normal development to produce congenital defects 5 Characteristics 1. Critical period - “critical period” = particular time interval during which the developing organism apparently is susceptible to that teratogen (usually time interval during which a system/organ/part of the newborn is developing rapidly) - Time when lung develops rapidly, they might be at risk during that time interval - Whatever effects there are, are very difficult to change - Harry Harlow’s monkey = wired monkey mother with the bottle, hairy cloth monkey mother o If put deprived monkeys with juvenile monkeys, juveniles act the therapists and mediate the devastated monkey - Sensitive period = can be therapeutically addressed o Damage can be undone, but must work very hard to undone it - There will be congenital defects that are very hard to repair if affected during the critical/sensitive period 2. Specificity - Particular teratogens affect particular kinds of organs/hearts/function - Teratogens have differentiated effects 3. Individual differences - Some people are more susceptible to a teratogen - This might be a result of a genetic make up - Genes might affect how susceptible to an environmental teratogen - Unknown if it’s the result of the mother or the fetus’ susceptibility of the teratogen - Don’t know if you should consider to abort, because don’t know if fetus is exposed to teratogen due to mother 4. Not always manifested in mother - Whatever it happens, the mother might not manifest the problem at all, that doesn’t mean the fetus isn’t affected - The mother might be immune to it, but doesn’t mean the fetus is not affected 5. Dose - How much exposure/the dose of the teratogen - If fetus experiences it over period of time, it might have more negative effects - There might be accumulated effects from teratogens Teratology = study of the effects of teratogens Maternal age - Mother might be too old/too young - Old = over 35 young = under 18 - Down syndrome increases with maternal age - The ova are present in the women from birth on 2 Class Notes – September 30 , 2010 - Ova are aging. Whatever environmental variable the mother is exposed to, can have effects on those ovum over the year - Male produces sperm on a daily basis - Accumulation of environmental effects on the ovum as the women age Maternal Nutrition - Diet (what mother eat) if a women experiences severe malnutrition during the pregnancy, this can cause the death of the embryo/fetus/premature delivery - If women doesn’t eat enough Iodine, this will cause mental retardation in the developing embryo/fetus - All the salt has iodine Maternal Stress - Emotions apt through the nervous system, which regulates the secretion of hormones (adrenaline, testosterone) - Hormones can pass through the placenta - Research here is correlational (no cause/effect) o If mother suffers from undue stress, the neonate will have low birth rate o Could be highly emotional mother, doesn’t take care of herself, doesn’t watch her diet, self-prophecy Rh Incompatibility - Rh factor in our blood, Rh + or Rh – - Mother is found Rh- , they will be advised to have 1 child from years ago - The problem only exists if the mother is Rh- o Rh- is a recessive gene - If Rh- mother, and developing organism is Rh+, mother will manufacture Rh antibodies, through placenta and destroy the embryo red blood cells of fetus - Baby will be born as “blue baby” = die or need entire blood transfusion in order to survive - Medical advance that changed life for these Rh- and children is = “rhogan injection” given to the mother and destroys Rh antibodies that mother’s body is building up - If antibodies are destroyed, then subsequent pregnancy, she won’t attack the organism st - With 1 pregnancy, if mother is Rh- and fetus is Rh+, then its okay, because mother doesn’t have enough time to build up these antibodies - But subsequent fetus will be in danger because antibodies will start to build up - Environmental = Rh antibodies that is destroying the fetus Maternal Diseases - German measel, rubella o If mother is exposed to rubella, she doenst have to show the symptoms o Within the moth after conception, chances of 50% that the developing embryo fetus will be malformed o Malformed = child will be born typically blind, deaf (what’s rapidly developing during that time) o Some still born, miscarriage, born prematurely, liver problem, heart problem, mental retardation - If exposed 3 months after conception = 0% that there will be any malformation - Notice the critical period - Syphilis, HIV/AIDS 6-15% North America, 50% Africa - If women has HIV is pregnancy, 20-30% that they will pass the virus to developing organism - Disease progresses quickly in newborns/infants, result in diarrhea, respiratory problems, brain damage, seizures, short life span Drugs, Chemicals & Hormones 3 Class Notes – September 30 , 2010h Thalidomide - Over the counter drug, available in 1959. Given to women who are experiencing morning sickness - With children malformed, arms growing out in random area - Effects during the 1 8 weeks of pregnancy, critical period affects the development of limbs (specificity) - Quickly taken off the drug list, but has returned - Now used to treardlapersy, and side effects of chemotherapy - In India, Rio, 3 world countries, babies are still being born after taking these drugs Antibiotics - Some affects skeletal growth - Prozac (infants of the mother will be more jittery, have breathing problems, even if mom goes off Prozac in 3 rd trimester, there still will be some consequences) Hormones - Ex: DES (Diethylstilbesterol) - Female sex hormone, given to women who experienced multiple miscarriages, enabled the women to carry the fetus (to avoid miscarriages for pregnant women) - It worked, everything seems to be fine until the female offspring reach to 20 o High correlation between cervical cancer in young women whose mother took DES - Male offspring has high risk of genital cancer - DES was prescribed for women from 1941 to 1971 Smoking - Correlation effects - Higher incidents of pre-mature birth, low birth weight in regards to maternal smoking - Dose factors (how much women smoke) - Some relation with father smoking - Might affect sperm production, be secreted in the semen - Infants of smokers are hyperactive Fetal Alcohol Syndrome F.A.S - David Smith, Ken Jones - Some infants are being born with abnormality, seem to have similar abnormalities - Mentally retarded, small babies, had failure to thrive (aren’t developing normally with normal nutrition), sunken cheek bones, cant extend arms/joints, upturn noses, heart problems, behavioural/cognitive deficit - Trace this fact = moms drinking - Mothers who drink are also smokers, and are also malnurturished Marijuana, LSD - Marijuana is stored in the fat cell of the body for 1 year - LSD is stored in the fat cell of the body for 7 years - Crack/cocaine are worst than LSD Paternal influences - Damaging sperm cells - Related to substances excreted in the semen, which enter to women’s circulation through the vaginal wall - They can contaminate the fetus through the placenta 4 Class Notes – September 30 , 2010 - Agent orange = used in the Vietnamese war Radiation (X-Rays) - Radiation can affect the developing organism - Radiation accumulates
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1,2 and half of page 3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.