Study Guides (238,586)
Canada (115,230)
York University (9,815)
Psychology (1,150)
PSYC 2110 (48)

ALL Key Terms for Midterm #2 (Textbook Ch. 6-9 & 11)

12 Pages
Unlock Document

York University
PSYC 2110
Maxine Wintre

PSYC2110 DEVELOPMENTALPSYCHOLOGY MIDTERM #2 (Ch. 6-9 & 11) – TEXTBOOK KEYTERMS CHAPTER #6 • Adolescent growth spurt: the rapid increase in physical growth that marks the beginning of adolescence. (p. 184) • Anorexia nervosa: a life-threatening eating disorder characterized by self-starvation and a compulsive fear of getting fat. (p. 190) • Brain growth spurt: the period between the seventh prenatal month and 2 years of age when more than half of the child’s eventual brain weight is added. (p. 168) • Bulimia: a life-threatening eating disorder characterized by recurrent eating binges followed by such purging activities as heavy use of laxatives or vomiting. (p. 190) • Catch-up growth: a period of accelerated growth in which children who have experienced growth deficits grow very rapidly to “catch up to” the growth trajectory that they are genetically programmed to follow. (p. 196) • Cephalocaudal development: a sequence of physical maturation and growth that proceeds from the head (cephalic region) to the tail (or caudal region). (p. 165) • Cerebral cortex: the outer layer of the brain’s cerebrum that is involved in voluntary body movements, perception, and higher intellectual functions such as learning, thinking, and speaking. (p. 172) • Cerebral lateralization: the specialization of brain functions in the left and the right cerebral hemispheres. (p. 173) • Cerebrum: the highest brain center; includes both hemispheres of the brain and the fibers that connect them. (p. 172) • Corpus callosum: the bundle of neural fibers that connects the two hemispheres of the brain and transmits information from one hemisphere to the other. (p. 172) • Deprivation dwarfism: a childhood growth disorder that is triggered by emotional deprivation and characterized by decreased production of GH, slow growth, and small stature. (p. 199) • Dynamical systems theory: a theory that views motor skills as active reorganizations of previously mastered capabilities that are undertaken to find more effective ways of exploring the environment or satisfying other objectives. (p. 178) • Estrogen: female sex hormone, produced by the ovaries, that is responsible for female sexual maturation. (p. 195) • Glia: nerve cells that nourish neurons and encase them in insulating sheaths of myelin. (p. 169) • Growth hormone (GH): the pituitary hormone that stimulates the rapid growth and development of body cells; primarily responsible for the adolescent growth spurt. (p. 194) • Iron-deficiency anemia: listlessness caused by too little iron in the diet that makes children inattentive and may retard physical and intellectual development. (p. 197) • Kwashiorkor: a growth-retarding disease affecting children who receive enough calories but little if any protein. (p. 196) • Marasmus: a growth-retarding disease affecting infants who receive insufficient protein and too few calories. (p. 196) • Menarche: the first occurrence of menstruation. (p. 185) • Myelinization: the process by which neurons are enclosed in waxy myelin sheaths that will facilitate the transmission of neural impulses. (p. 172) • Neurons: nerve cells that receive and transmit neural impulses. (p. 168) • Nonorganic failure to thrive: an infant growth disorder, caused by lack of attention and affection that causes growth to slow dramatically or stop. (p. 198) • Obese: a medical term describing individuals who are at least 20 percent above the ideal weight for their height, age, and sex. (p. 197) • Physical activity play: moderate to vigorous play activities such as running, jumping, climbing, play fighting, or game playing that raise a child’s metabolic rate far above resting levels. (p. 184) • Pincer grasp: a grasp in which the thumb is used in opposition to the fingers, enabling an infant to become more dexterous at lifting and fondling objects. (p. 180) • Pituitary: a “master gland” located at the base of the brain that regulates the endocrine glands and produces growth hormone. (p. 194) • Plasticity: capacity for change; a developmental state that has the potential to be shaped by experience. (p. 170) • Proximodistal development: a sequence of physical maturation and growth that proceeds from the center of the body (the proximal region) to the extremities (distal regions). (p. 166) • Puberty: the point at which a person reaches sexual maturity and is physically capable of fathering or conceiving a child. (p. 184) • Rites of passage: rituals that signify the passage from one period of life to another (e.g., puberty rites). (p. 191) • Secular trend: a trend in industrialized societies toward earlier maturation and greater body size now than in the past. (p. 186) • Skeletal age: a measure of physical maturation based on the child’s level of skeletal development. (p. 167) • Synapse: the connective space (juncture) between one nerve cell (neuron) and another. (p. 168) • Synaptogenesis: formation of connections (synapses) among neurons. (p. 170) • Testosterone: male sex hormone, produced by the testes, that is responsible for male sexual maturation. (p. 195) • Thyroxine: a hormone produced by the thyroid gland; essential for normal growth of the brain and the body. (p. 194) • Ulnar grasp: an early manipulatory skill in which an infant grasps objects by pressing the fingers against the palm. (p. 180) • Vitamin/mineral deficiency: a form of malnutrition in which the diet provides sufficient protein and calories but is lacking in one or more substances that promote normal growth. (p. 196) CHAPTER #7 • Classical conditioning: type of learning in which an initially neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with a meaningful nonneutral stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit the response originally made only to the nonneutral stimulus. (p. 231) • Conditioned response (CR): learned response to a stimulus that was not originally capable of producing the response. (p. 232) • Conditioned stimulus (CS): initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a particular response after being paired with a unconditioned stimulus that always elicits the response. (p. 232) • Counterconditioning: treatment based on classical conditioning in which the goal is to extinguish an undesirable response and replace it with a new and more adaptive one. (p. 232) • Deferred imitation: ability to reproduce a modeled activity that has been witnessed at some point in the past. (p. 240) • Differentiation theory: theory specifying that perception involves detecting distinctive features or cues that is contained in the sensory stimulation we receive. (p. 206) • Dishabituation: an increase in responsiveness that occurs when stimulation changes. (p. 208) • Distinctive features: characteristics of a stimulus that remain constant; dimensions on which two or more objects differ and can be discriminated (sometimes called invariances or invariant features). (p. 206) • Encoding: process by which external stimulation is converted to a mental representation. (p. 237) • Enrichment theory: theory specifying that we must add to sensory stimulation by drawing on stored knowledge in order to perceive a meaningful world. (p. 206) • Evoked potential: a change in patterning of the brain waves that indicates that an individual detects (senses) a stimulus. (p. 208) • Extinction: gradual weakening and disappearance of a learned response that occurs because the conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus (in classical conditioning) or the response is no longer reinforced (in operant conditioning). (p. 232) • Habituation: decrease in response to a stimulus that has become familiar through repetition. (p. 208) • High-amplitude sucking method: a method of assessing infants’perceptual capabilities that capitalizes on the ability of infants to make interesting events last by varying the rate at which they suck on a special pacifier. (p. 208) • Intermodal perception: ability to use one sensory modality to identify a stimulus or pattern of stimuli that is already familiar through another modality. (p. 224) • Kinetic cues: cues created by movements of objects or movements of the body; provide important information for the perception of forms and spatial relations. (p. 221) • Negative punishment: punishing consequence that involves the removal of something pleasant following a behaviour. (p. 233) • Negative reinforce: any stimulus whose removal or termination as the consequence of an act will increase the probability that the act will recur. (p. 233) • Operant conditioning: a form of learning in which freely emitted acts (or operants) become either more or less probable depending on the consequences they produce. (p. 233) • Otitis media: common bacterial infection of the middle ear that produces mild to moderate hearing loss. (p. 213) • Perception: process by which we categorize and interpret sensory input. (p. 206) • Perceptual learning: changes in ability to extract information from sensory stimulation that occur as a result of experience. (p. 227) • Phonemes: smallest meaningful sound units that make up a spoken language. (p. 211) • Pictorial (perspective) cues: depth and distance cues (including linear perspective, texture gradients, sizing, interposition, and shading) that are monocular—that is, detectable with only one eye. (p. 220) • Positive punishment: punishing consequence that involves the presentation of something unpleasant following behaviour. (p. 234) • Positive reinforce: any stimulus whose presentation, as the consequence of an act, increases the probability that the act will recur. (p. 233) • Preference method: method used to gain information about infants’perceptual abilities by presenting two (or more) stimuli and observing which stimulus the infant prefers. (p. 207) • Sensation: detection of stimuli by the sensory receptors and transmission of this information to the brain. (p. 205) • Size constancy: tendency to perceive an object as the same size from different distances despite changes in the size of its retinal image. (p. 221) • Stereopsis: fusion of two flat images to produce a single image that has depth. (p. 220) • Unconditioned response (UCR): unlearned response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus. (p. 231) • Unconditioned stimulus (UCS): stimulus that elicits a particular response without any prior learning. (p. 231) • Visual acuity: person’s ability to see small objects and fine detail. (p. 215) • Visual cliff: elevated platform that creates an illusion of depth; used to test the depth perception of infants. (p. 222) • Visual contrast: amount of light/dark transition in a visual stimulus. (p. 215) • Visual looming: expansion of the image of an object to take up the entire visual field as it draws very close to the face. (p. 221) CHAPTER #8 • A-not-B error: tendency of 8 to 12-montholds to search for a hidden object where they previously found it even after they have seen it moved to a new location. (p. 252) • Adaptation: an inborn tendency to adjust to the demands of the environment. (p. 247) • Animism: attributing life and lifelike qualities to inanimate objects. (p. 259) • Appearance/reality distinction: ability to keep the true properties or characteristics of an object in mind despite the deceptive appearance that the object has assumed; notably lacking among young children during the preconception period. (p. 261) • Assimilation: Piaget’s term for the process by which children interpret new experiences by incorporating them into their existing schemes. (p. 247) • Belief–desire reasoning: the process whereby we explain and predict what people do based on what we understand their desires and beliefs to be. (p. 265) • Centration (centered thinking): in Piaget’s theory, the tendency of preoperational children to attend to one aspect of a situation to the exclusion of others; contrasts with decentration. (p. 262) • Cognition: the activity of knowing and the processes through which knowledge is acquired. (p. 245) • Cognitive equilibrium: Piaget’s term for the state of affairs in which there is a balanced, or harmonious, relationship between one’s thought processes and the environment. (p. 246) • Cognitive self-guidance system: in Vygotsky’s theory, the use of private speech to guide problem-solving behaviour. (p. 288) • Concrete-operational period: Piaget’s third stage of cognitive development, lasting from about age 7 to age 11, when children are acquiring cognitive operations and thinking more logically about real objects and experiences. (p. 269) • Conservation: recognition that the properties of an object or substance do not change when its appearance is altered in some superficial way. (p. 262) • Constructivist: one who gains knowledge by acting or otherwise operating on objects and events to discover their properties. (p. 246) • Context-independent learning: learning that has no immediate relevance to the present context, as is done in modern schools; acquiring knowledge for knowledge’s sake. (p. 285) • Coordination of secondary circular reactions: fourth substage of Piaget’s sensorimotor stage; infants begin to coordinate two or more actions to achieve simple objectives. This is the first sign of goal-directed behaviour. (p. 250) • Decentration: in Piaget’s theory, the ability of concrete operational children to consider multiple aspects of a stimulus or situation; contrasts with centration. (p. 262) • Dual representation (dual encoding; dual orientation): the ability to represent an object simultaneously as an object in itself and as a representation of something else. (p. 259) • Egocentric speech: Piaget’s term for the subset of a young child’s utterances that are nonsocial—that is, neither directed to others nor expressed in ways that listeners might understand. (p. 288) • Egocentrism: the tendency to view the world from your own perspective while failing to recognize that others may have different points of view. (p. 259) • False-belief task: a type of task used in theory-of-mind studies, in which the child must infer that another person does not possess knowledge, that he or she possesses (i.e., that other person holds a belief that is false). (p. 267) • Formal operations: Piaget’s fourth and final stage of cognitive development, from age 11 or 12 and beyond, when the individual begins to think more rationally and systematically about abstract concepts and hypothetical events. (p. 271) • Genetic epistemology: the experimental study of the development of knowledge, developed by Piaget. (p. 246) • Guided participation: adult–child interactions in which children’s cognition and modes of thinking are shaped as they participate with or observe adults engaged in culturally relevant activities. (p. 284) • Horizontal décalage: Piaget’s term for a child’s uneven cognitive performance; an inability to solve certain problems even though the child can solve similar problems requiring the same mental operations. (p. 271) • Hypothetico-deductive reasoning: in Piaget’s theory, a formal operational ability to think hypothetically. (p. 271) • Identity training: an attempt to promote conservation by teaching nonconservers to recognize that a transformed object or substance is the same object or substance, regardless of its new appearance. (p. 264) • Imaginary audience: a result of adolescent egocentrism.Adolescents believe that everyone around them is as interested in their thoughts and behaviours as they are themselves. (p. 274) • Inductive reasoning: the type of thinking that scientists display, where hypotheses are generated and then systematically tested in experiments. (p. 273) • Inner experimentation: sixth substage of Piaget’s sensorimotor stage; the ability to solve simple problems on a mental, or symbolic, level without having to rely on trial-and- error experimentation. (p. 250) • Intelligence: in Piaget’s theory, a basic life function that enables an organism to adapt to its environment. (p. 246) • Mental seriation: a cognitive operation that allows one to mentally order a set of stimuli along a quantifiable dimension such as height or weight. (p. 271) • Microgenetic development: changes that occur over relatively brief periods, in seconds, minutes, or days, as opposed to larger-scale changes, as conventionally studied in ontogenetic development. (p. 281) • Neo-nativism: idea that much cognitive knowledge, such as the object concept, is innate, requiring little in the way of specific experiences to be expressed, and that there are biological constraints in that the mind/ brain is designed to process certain types of information in certain ways. (p. 252) • Object permanence: the realization that objects continue to exist when they are no longer
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 2110

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.