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Developmental Exam Notes.docx

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PSYC 2110
Jean Varghese

Test #2 – Textbook Notes Chapter 6: Physical Development – The Brain, Body, Motor Skills and Sexual Development (165-200) *babies who walk early are not necessarily inclined to be especially bright *the average 2 y.o. is already about half of his/her adult height *half the nerve cells (neurons) in the average baby’s brain die (and are not replaced) over the first few years of life *most children walk when they are ready, and no amount of encouragement will enable a 6 month-old to walk alone *hormones have a huge effect on human growth and development before puberty *emotional trauma can seriously impair the growth of young children -babies gain 28g each day and 2.5cm each month -babies double their weight by 4-6mos. + tripling it by the end of the year -by age 2, quadrupled birth weight to 12-14kg -newborn head is 70% adult size; ¼ of full size like legs are -cephalocaudal development: physical growth that proceeds from the head (cephalic region) to the tail (caudal region). -proximodistal development: children grow outward (ex.- chest and internal organs form first, then arms and legs, then hands and feet) *this pattern reverses when puberty hits -skeletal age: a measure of physical maturation based on the child’s level of skeletal development. -brain growth spurt: the period between the 7 prenatal month and 2 years of age when more than half of the child’s eventual brain weight is added. -synapse: the connective space (juncture) between 1 nerve cell (neuron) + another. -neurons: nerve cells that receive and transmit neural impulses -glia: nerve cells that nourish neurons and encase them in insulating sheaths of myelin. -synaptogenesis: formation of connections (synapses) among neurons. -plasticity: capacity for change; a developmental state that has the potential to be shaped by experience. -myelinization: the process by which neurons are enclosed in waxy myelin sheaths that will facilitate the transmission of neural impulses. -cerebrum: the highest brain centre; includes both hemispheres of the brain and the fibres that connect them. -corpus callosum: the bundle of neural fibres that connect the 2 hemispheres of the brain and transmit information from one hemisphere to the other. -cerebral cortex: the outer layer of the brain’s cerebrum, which is involved in voluntary body movements, perception, and higher intellectual functioning (ex.- learning, thinking, speaking). -cerebral lateralization: the specialization of brain functions in the left and right cerebral hemispheres. *fig. 6.5 (pg. 173) motor development theories (M.E.D.) 1. maturational viewpoint: motor development is the unfolding of genetically programmed sequence of events where the nerves and muscles mature in a downward and outward direction. 2. experiential (or practice) hypothesis: opportunities to practice motor skills are also important. 3. dynamical systems theory: a theory that views motor skills as active reorganizations of previously mastered capabilities undertaken to find more effective ways of exploring the environment or satisfying other objectives. *voluntary reaching and manipulatory (or hand) skills. -proprioceptive information: sensory information from the muscles, tendon, and joints that help one to locate the position of one’s body (or body parts) in space. -ulnar grasp: an early manipulatory skill in which an infant grasps objects by pressing the fingers against the palm. -pincer grasp: a grasp in which the thumb is used in opposition to the fingers, enabling an infant to become more dexterous at lifting/fondling objects. -physically active play: moderate to vigorous play activities such as running, jumping, climbing, play-fighting, or game-playing that raise a child’s metabolic rate far above resting levels. -adolescent growth spurt: the rapid increase in physical growth that marks the beginning of adolescence. -puberty: the point at which a person reaches sexual maturity and is physically capable of fathering or conceiving a child. -menarche: the first occurrence of menstruation. -secular trend: a trend toward earlier maturation and greater body size now than in the past. -anorexia and bulimia -rites of passage: rituals that signify the passage from one period of life to another (ex.- puberty rites). causes and correlates of physical development -thyroxine: a hormone produced by the thyroid gland; essential for normal growth of the brain and the body. -pituitary: a ‘master gland’ located at the base of the brain that regulates the endocrine glands and produces growth hormone. -growth hormone: (GH) the pituitary hormone that stimulates the rapid growth and development of body cells; primarily responsible for the adolescent growth spurt. -estrogen: produced by ovaries. testosterone: produced by the testes. *fig 6.8 (pg. 195) -catch-up growth: a period of accelerated growth in which children who have experienced growth deficits grow very rapidly to ‘catch up’ to the growth trajectory that they are genetically programmed to follow. -marasmus: a growth-retarding disease affecting infants who receive insufficient protein and too few calories. -kwashiorkor: a growth-retarding disease affecting children who receive enough calories but little if any protein. -vitamin/mineral deficiency: diet is lacking in 1 or more substances promoting normal growth. -iron-deficiency anemia: a listlessness (lack of interest/energy) caused by too little iron in the diet; makes children inattentive and may retard physical + intellectual development. -obese: 20% above the ideal weight for their height, age, and sex. (H.A.S.) -nonorganic failure to thrive: an infant growth disorder caused by lack of attention and affection, that causes growth to slow dramatically or stop altogether. -deprivation dwarfism: a childhood growth disorder that is triggered by emotional deprivation and characterized by decreased production of GH, slow growth, and small stature. *pg. 201 summary Chapter 7: Early Cognitive Foundations – Sensation, Perception and Learning (206-240) -sensation: detection of stimuli by the sensory receptors and transmission of this information to the brain. -perception: process by which we categorize and interpret sensory input. -enrichment theory: theory specifying that we must add to sensory stimulation by drawing on stored knowledge in order to perceive a meaningful world. -differentiation theory: theory specifying that perception involves detecting distinctive features or cues that are contained in the sensory stimulation we receive. -distinctive features: char.s of a stimulus that remain constant; dimensions on which 2 or more objects differ and can be discriminated (sometimes called ‘invariances’ or ‘invariant features’). research methods used to study the infant’s sensory and perceptual experiences -the preference method: method used to gain info about infants’ perceptual abilities by presenting 2 or more stimuli and observing which stimulus the infant prefers. -the habituation method: decrease in response to a stimulus that has become familiar through repetition. -dishabituation: an increase in responsiveness that occurs when stimulation changes. -evoked potential: a change in patterning of the brainwaves that indicates that an individual detects (senses) a stimulus. -high-amplitude sucking method: a method of assessing infants’ perceptual capabilities that capitalizes only on the ability of infants to make interesting events last by varying the rate at which they suck on a special pacifier. -phonemes: smallest meaningful sound units that make up a spoken language. -otitis media: common bacterial infection of the middle ear that produces mild to moderate hearing loss. -visual acuity: a person’s ability to see small objects and fine detail. -visual contrast: amount of light/dark transition in a visual stimulus. *table 7.1, pg. 216. -stereopsis: fusion of 2 flat images to produce a single image that has depth. -pictorial (perspective) cues: depth and distance cues (including linear perspective, texture gradients, sizing, interposition, and shading) that are monocular – that is, detectable with only 1 eye. -visual looming: expansion of the image of an object to take up the entire visual field as it draws closer to the face. -size constancy: tendency to perceive an object as the same size from different distances despite changes in the size of its retinal image. -kinetic cues: cues created by the movements of objects or movements of the body; provide important information for the perception of forms and spatial -visual cliff: elevated platform that creates an illusion of depth; used to test the depth perception of infants. -intermodal perception: ability to use 1 sensory modality to identify a stimulus or pattern of stimuli that is already familiar through another modality. -perceptual learning: changes in ability to extract information from sensory stimulation that occur as a result of experience. -learning: a relatively permanent change in behaviour (or behaviour potential) that results from one’s experiences or practice. -classical conditioning: a type of learning in which an initially neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with a meaningful non-neutral stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit the response originally made only to the non-neutral stimulus. -unconditioned stimulus (UCS): stimulus that elicits a particular response without any prior learning. -unconditioned response (UCR): unlearned response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus. -conditioned response (CR): learned response to a stimulus that was not originally capable of producing the response. -conditioned stimulus (CS): initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a particular response after being paired with an unconditioned stimulus that always elicits the response. -extinction: gradual weakening and disappearance of a learned response that occurs because the conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus (in classical conditioning) or the response is no longer reinforced (in operant conditioning). -counterconditioning: treatment based on classical conditioning in which the goal is to extinguish an undesirable response and replace it with a new and more adaptive one. -operant conditioning: a form of learning in which freely emitted acts (operants) become either more or less probable depending on the consequences they produce. -reinforcer: increases probability that the act will recur. -positive reinforcer: the presentation of this as the consequence of an act increases the probability that the act will recur. -negative reinforcer: the removal/termination of this as the consequence of an act increases the probability that the act will recur. -punisher: suppresses the response and decreases the probability that it will recur. -positive punishment: punishing consequence that involves the presentation of something unpleasant following a behaviour. -negative punishment: punishing consequence that involves the removal of something pleasant following a behaviour. -observational learning -encoding: process by which external stimulation is converted into a mental representation. -deferred imitation: ability to reproduce a modeled activity that has been witnessed at some point in the past. *summary pg. 242 Chapter 8: Cognitive Development – Piaget’s Theory, Case’s Neo-Piagetian Theory and Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Viewpoint (246-292) -cognition: the activity of knowing and the processes through which knowledge is acquired. -cognitive development: changes that occur in mental activities such a attending, perceiving, learning, thinking, and remembering. -genetic epistemology: the experimental study of the development of knowledge, developed by piaget. -intelligence: in piaget’s theory, a basic life function that enables an organism to adapt to its environment. -cognitive equilibrium: piaget’s term for the state of affairs in which there is a balanced, or harmonious, relation. -constructivist: one who gains knowledge by acting/operating on objects and events to discover their properties. -scheme: an organized pattern of thought or action that a child constructs to make sense of some aspect of his or her experience; piaget sometimes uses the term ‘cognitive structures’ as a synonym. -organization: an inborn tendency to combine and integrate available schemes into coherent systems or bodies of knowledge. -adaptation: an inborn tendency to adjust to the demands of the environment. -assimilation: the process of interpreting new experiences by incorporating them into existing schemes. -accommodation: the process of modifying existing schemes in order to incorporate or adapt to new experiences. -invariant developmental sequence: a series of developments that occur in one particular order because each development in the sequence is a prerequisite for those appearing later. -sensorimotor period: piaget’s 1 intellectual stage. from birth to 2 years, when infa
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