amae Japanese concept that refers to an infants feeling of total dependence on his or her mother and the
presumption of the mothers love and indulgence.
asocial phase approximately the first six weeks of life, in which infants respond in an equally favourable way to interesting
social and nonsocial stimuli.
attachment a close emotional relationship between two persons, characterized by mutual affection and a desire to maintain
attachment Q set alternative method of assessing attachment security that is based on observing the childs attachment-related
behaviours at home; can be used with infants, toddlers, and preschool children.
avoidant an insecure infantcaregiver bond, characterized by little separation protest and a tendency of the child to avoid
attachment or ignore the caregiver.
a temperamental attribute reflecting ones tendency to withdraw from unfamiliar people or situations.
caregiving Ainsworths notion that the type of attachment that an infant develops with a particular caregiver depends
hypothesis primarily on the kind of caregiving he or she has received from that person.
difficult temperamental profile in which the child is irregular in daily routines and adapts slowly to new experiences,
temperament often responding negatively and intensely.
disorganized an insecure infantcaregiver bond, characterized by the infants dazed appearance on reunion or a tendency to
disoriented first seek and then abruptly avoid the caregiver.
easy temperamental profile in which the child quickly establishes regular routines, is generally good-natured, and
temperament adapts easily to novelty.
emotional culturally defined rules specifying which emotions should or should not be expressed under which
display rules circumstances.
emotional self strategies for managing emotions or adjusting emotional arousal to a comfortable level of intensity.
empathy the ability to experience the same emotions that others display.
goodness of fit Thomas and Chesss notion that development is likely to be optimized when parents child-rearing practices are
model sensitively adapted to the childs temperamental characteristics.
imprinting an innate or instinctual form of learning in which the young of certain species follow and become attached to
moving objects (usually their mothers).
internal working cognitive representations of self, others, and relationships that infants construct from their interactions with
kewpie doll the notion that infantile facial features are perceived as cute and lovable and elicit favourable responses from
learned the failure to learn how to respond appropriately in a situation because of previous exposures to uncontrollable
helplessness events in the same or similar situations.
deprivation the notion that socially deprived infants develop abnormally because they have failed to establish attachments
hypothesis to a primary caregiver.
indiscriminate period between 6 weeks and 6 to 7 months of age in which infants prefer social to nonsocial stimulation and are
likely to protest whenever any adult puts them down or leaves them alone.
multiple period when infants form attachments to companions other than their primary attachment object.
phase of specific period between 7 and 9 months of age when infants are attached to one close companion (usually the mother).
preadapted an innate attribute that is a product of evolution and serves some function that increases the chances of survival
characteristic for the individual and the species.
primary the set of emotions present at birth or emerging early in the first year that some theorists believe to be
emotions biologically programmed.
reactive inability to form secure attachment bonds with other people; characterizes many victims of early social attachment deprivation and/or abuse.
resistant an insecure infantcaregiver bond, characterized by strong separation protest and a tendency of the child to
attachment remain near but resist contact initiated by the caregiver, particularly after a separation.
secondary self-conscious or self-evaluative emotions that emerge in the second year and depend, in part, on cognitive
secondary an initially neutral stimulus that acquires reinforcement value by virtue of its repeated association with other
reinforcer reinforcing stimuli.
secure an infantcaregiver bond in which the child welcomes contact with a close companion and uses this person as a
attachment secure base from which to explore the environment.
secure base an infants use of a caregiver as a base from which to explore the environment and to which to return for
separation a wary or fretful reaction that infants and toddlers often display when separated from the people to whom they
anxiety are attached.
slow to warm-up temperamental profile in which the child is inactive and moody and displays mild passive resistance to new
temperament routines and experiences.
social the use of others emotional expressions to infer the meaning of otherwise ambiguous situations.
social the notion that socially deprived infants develop abnormally because they have had little contact with
stimulation companions who respond contingently to their social overtures.
strange situation a series of eight separation and reunion episodes to which infants are exposed in order to determine the quality
of their attachments.
stranger anxiety a wary or fretful reaction that infants and toddlers often display when approached by an unfamiliar person.
synchronized generally harmonious interactions between two people in which participants adjust their behaviour in response
routines to each others actions.
temperament a persons characteristic modes of responding emotionally and behaviourally to environmental events, including
such attributes as activity level, irritability, fearfulness, and sociability.
temperament Kagans view that the strange-situation test measures individual differences in infants temperaments rather
hypothesis than the quality of their attachments.
attributions causal explanations that one provides for ones successes and failures.
expectancy how well (or poorly) one expects to perform should he or she try to achieve a particular objective.
a willingness to strive to succeed at challenging tasks and to meet high standards of accomplishment.
attribution therapeutic intervention in which helpless children are persuaded to attribute failures to their lack of effort
retraining rather than a lack of ability.
a flexible, democratic style of parenting in which warm, accepting parents provide guidance and control while
parenting allowing the child some say in how best to meet challenges and obligations.
comparisons the tendency to form impressions of others by comparing and contrasting their overt behaviours.
belief desire the theory of mind that develops between ages 3 and 4; the child now realizes that both beliefs and desires may
theory determine behaviour and that people act on their beliefs, even if they are inaccurate.
categorical self a persons classification of the self along socially significant dimensions such as age and sex.
collectivist society that values cooperative interdependence, social harmony, and adherence to group norms. Thesesociety societies generally hold that the groups well-being is more important than that of the individual.
desire theory early theory of mind in which a persons actions are thought to be a reflection of her or his desires rather than
other mental states such as belief.
entity view of
ability belief that ones ability is a highly stable trait that is little influenced by effort or practice.
extended self more mature self-representation, emerging between ages 31/2 and 5 years, in which children are able to
integrate past, current, and unknown future self-representations into a notion of a self that endures over time.
false belief task method of assessing ones understanding that people can hold inaccurate beliefs that can influence their
conduct, wrong as these beliefs may be.
acting in ways that do not reflect ones true self or the true me.
foreclosure identity status characterizing individuals who have prematurely committed themselves to occupations or
ideologies without really thinking about these commitments.
identity a mature self-definition; a sense of who one is, where one is going in life, and how one fits into society.
identity crisis Eriksons term for the uncertainty and discomfort that adolescents experience when they become confused
about their present and future roles in life.
identity diffusion identity status characterizing individuals who are not questioning who they are and have not