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CH 12.docx

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PSYC 2110
Gillian Wu

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CH 12: EMOTIONAL DEV, TEMPERMENT & ATTACHMENT  Bonding: a affectionate tie b/w parents and child – devs shortly after birth (so the affection is one way, only from parents onto the infant  Attachment: reciprocal emotional r/s b/w 2 ppl – occurs when an infant is older and able to form a bond w. their parents EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT DISPLAYING EMOTIONS: THE DEV AND CONTROL OF EMOTIONAL EXPRESSION  Studies have shown that different adults are reliably able to discriminate different facial expressions of infants o Additionally, adults can discriminate b.w different +ve emotions of an infant (harder to discriminate b.w different –ve emotions tho)  Emotions start to appear at different times over an infants life o Start w. interest, distress, disgust and contentment; social smiles begin at 2 months  Basic emotions: set of emotions present at birth or early in the first year – include anger, sadness, joy, surprise and fear (might be innate)  Complex emotions: start at 2 years – known as self-conscious emotions based on their cognitive dev; include embarrassment, guilt, envy, pride and shame o Guilt: when we feel we haven’t lived up to someone’s expectations o Shame: more self-focused than guilt – could be due to a personal failure  As children reach sexual maturity: display a dramatic increase in –ve emotions (happens more w. children who have low self-esteem, conduct disorder or feel lonely); eventually when they reach early adulthood, emotions start becoming more +ve again  Elevated levels of stress are a major contributor to more –ve emotions  Emotional display rules: culturally defined rules specifying which emotions should be expressed under certain circumstances o i.e. always showing happiness when you receive a crappy gift from your grandma (this happens in cultures where parents are always displaying +ve emotions to their children (so kids can display +ve, but resist showing –ve emotions; cultures like the Aka hardly ever play w. their children, but try to always keep their children calm, so children are likely to resist displaying -ve AND +ve emotions) o Girls are more skilled at complying w. display rules than boys  Emotional self-regulation: strategies for managing emotions – starts happening at 6 months: girls are better able to regulate emotion than boys at this age o As children get older they start getting better at posing outward expressions that differ from their inner feelings RECOGNIZING AND INTERPRETING EMOTIONS  Social referencing: using others emotional expression to infer the meaning of an ambiguous situation (starts happening at 7-10 months, and dev’s w. age)  When children start to talk about emotions, they are able to start understanding their own and other’s feelings; as this starts deving it contributes to a child’s understanding of empathy (ability to experience the same emotions someone else is experiencing)  As children get older, they start to use personal, situational and historical cues for understanding others emotions EMOTIONS AND EARLY SOCIAL DEV  The emotions of a baby are likely to affect the behaviour of a caregiver  Infants that start interpreting others emotions is important for them to infer how they should feel in a situation – they can quickly acquire k.l this way  Achieving emotional competence is crucial to a child’s social competence (which the ability to maintain +ve r.s’s w. others in a social interaction, while still achieving personal goals – can lead to more +ve r/s’s w. peers/teachers)  Emotional competence has 3 components: 1. Competent emotional expressivity: a frequent display of +ve emotion and infrequent display of –ve emotion 2. Competent emotional k.l: ability to identify others emotions and factors responsible for those emotions 3. Competent emotional regulation: ability to adjust ones emotional arousal to an intensity that can successfully achieve one’s goal TEMPERMENT AND DEVELOPMENT  Temperament: emotional building block of adult personality; is genetically influenced and stable overtime (6 types): o Fearful distress: withdrawal to new situations o Irritable distress: fussiness o +ve affect: frequently smiling and cooperating w. others o Activity level: amount of gross motor activity i.e. kicking o Attention span/persistence: length of time a child focuses on objects o Rhythmicity: regularity of bodily fn’s i.e. eating, sleeping, bowel movement HEREDITARY AND ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON TEMPERMENT  Hereditary: mono twins are more similar on temperamental attributes than di twins (but is a moderate hereditability coefficient)  Environment: home environment that siblings share influence +ve aspects of temperament; -ve temperaments are due to non-shared environmental influences (aspects of the environment that siblings don’t share, which make them different, i.e. parenting style)  Culture: children in USA who are shy are at a disadvantage; children considered shy in China are perceived as socially mature and unlike in USA, these reserved children are likely to be more popular w. peers o The behaviours that Western children display would appear to be considered CDisorder in Thailand STABILITY OF TEMPERMENT  Some aspects of temperament are stable over time (even until adulthood)  Behavioural inhibition: temperamental attribute based on the tendency to w.draw from unfamiliar ppl or situations – it is a moderately stable attribute that may have deep biological roots (they show greater activity in their right hemisphere, since it’s the center for –ve emotion; also genetically influenced) EARLY TEMPERMENTAL PROFILES AND LATER DEVELOPMENT  3 temperamental profiles exist (based on clusters of different temperaments) o Easy temperament: 40% of popn – easy going and open to new experiences; regular and predictable habits o Difficult temperament: 10% - active & irritable in habits; slow to adapt to new ppl or situations (respond to change in intense –ve ways) o Slow-to-warm-up temperament: 15% - inactive, moody and slow to adapt to new ppl/situations; respond to change in mildly –ve ways)  Profiles persist over time & influence a child’s adjustment to many settings in life  Temperament can change; based on a goodness-of-fit, which is due to the child’s temperament and parents pattern of rearing o Having a good fit b.w temperament and rearing: children considered difficult, but have patient parents will no longer be classified as difficult when they become adults o Poor fit: parents that are inpatient & irritable cause children to be more fussy & resistant to change; can lead to behavioural problems later in life ATTACHMENT AND DEVELOPMENT ATTACHMENT AS A RECIPROCAL RELATIONSHIP  Bowlby stressed that attachment is reciprocal for infants and their parents  Synchronized routines: when a infant display a gesture to their caregiver, they expect a certain gestures back from their caregiver; when this doesn’t happen, they become distressed o Synchronous interactions develop best when parents provide social stimulation to the baby when their alert and receptive – they are very important for emotional attachment HOW DO INFANTS BECOME ATTACHED?  There are 4 phases to how a baby becomes attached to their close companions 1. Asocial (0-6 weeks): social AND nonsocial stimuli produce favourable rxns; few stimuli produce protest 2. Phase of indiscriminate attachments (6weeks-6months): infants are indiscriminate since they smile more at humans than lifelike objects (like a puppet); they are likely to fuss when adults aren’t holding them; they like the attn received from any caregiver (including strangers) 3. Specific attachment phase (7-9 months): only protest when separated from mother; time when they develop their FIRST GENUINE ATTACHMENT – since they now crawl, they often follow their mother around; this first attachment creates a secure base so the baby can start exploring 4. Phase of multiple attachment (9-18 months): attachments start growing to other people i.e. father, cousin, babysitter THEORIES OF ATTACHMENT Psychoanalytical theory: I love you b
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