Study Guides (238,105)
Canada (114,924)
York University (9,812)
Psychology (1,150)
PSYC 2120 (62)

Chapter 8.docx

5 Pages
Unlock Document

York University
PSYC 2120
Kerry Kawakami

Chapter 8 Group processes • Group- collection of 3 or more ppl who interact with one another and are interdependent, their needs and goals cause them to rely on one another • Group consists of 3 components 1. 3 or more ppl 2. Interaction with one another 3. Interdependent- goals and needs rely on one another • 2 ppl are considered to be a DYAD- not a group • For example- citizens meeting to solve a problem is a GROUP • Ppl join groups to fulfill their basic human needs • There is an innate need to belong together in a social group • Being a part of a group means- positive self esteem, growth • SOCIAL NORMS are a powerful determinant of our behavior • 2 reasons for homogeneity in groups 1. Many groups attract ppl who are already similar before they join 2. Groups operate in ways that can happen in a number of important ways • Example of a social norm- if youre a part of a political group - taking part in protest marches and how you are supposed to feel about rival political parties • Social roles- shared experiences by group members about how particular ppl in the group are supposed to behave • Ppl can get into a role where they can lose their personality and identity • Group cohesiveness- qualities of a group that bind members together and promote liking among them • One disadvantage of group cohesiveness is that maintaining good relations can get in the way of finding good solutions to problems • How groups influence the behaviour of individuals- social facilitation • SOCIAL FACILITATION- when the presence of others energizes us • The tendency for people to do better on simple tasks, but worse on complex tasks when they are in the presence of others and their individual performance can be evaluated • Presence of other ppl- performing a task with others who are doing the same thing as you OR performing a task in front of an audience that is not doing anything except watching you • Zajonc- cockroaches and fishing reel task • Arousal vs dominant response- TWO steps 1. The presence of others increases physiological arousal ( i.e. our bodies become more energized ) 2. When that arousal exists, it is easier to do an easy task ( dominant response ) but difficult to do something complex or learn something new • Why the presence of others causes arousal? 3 points 1. They cause us to become alert and vigilant - that someone might do something that requires a response 2. Make us anxious of how we are evaluated - they are judging us- if we do something poorly they will judge us 3. Distract us from the task at hand - cant do two things at once properly • Concern about being judged is called Evaluation Apprehension- causes mild arousal • SOCIAL LOAFING- when the presence of others relaxes us • Definition- tendency for ppl to do worse at simple tasks, but better on complex tasks, when they are in the presence of others and their performance cannot be evaluated • When we are alone or not under the spotlight we are not aroused hence we tend to do complex things better than simple things such as clapping hands • Group work- you are lazy because its anonymous but if you are given an individual assignment but youre not being watched then you put work into it • When ppl are anonymous in groups, they tend to put less effort into their work • Also when ppl cannot be identified, they do things that are harmful, against the norms, and are also less conscious • Deindividuation- loosening of normal constraints on behaviour when people are in a group, leading to an increase in impulsive and deviant acts • Disguises tend to make ppl do vicious things that they wouldn’t do otherwise when they can be identified • When does deindividuation lead to impulsive acts? 3 factors 1. Presence of others, wearing of masks, uniforms, disguises makes ppl feel less accountable for their actions because it reduces the likelihood that any individual will be singled out and blamed 2. Presence of others lowers self awareness, thereby shifting peoples attention away from their moral standards 3. It increases the extent to which people obey the group's norm • PROCESS LOSS- When group interactions inhibit (discourage/prevent) good problem solving • Failure to share UNIQUE information- they only focus on the shared info with one another but ignore the unique info that only one person knows in the group • Group discussions must last long enough, assign different group members to specific areas so they alone are responsible for certain info • Transactive memory- combined memory of two people that is more efficient than the memory of either individual • Groupthink- thinking in which maintaining group cohesiveness and solidarity is more imp than considering the facts in a realistic manner • Often occurs when: when a group is ruled by a leader who makes his or her wishes known, ppl usually follow his or her path and don’t question it: fear of being criticized and other ppl in the group forcing the person to conform to the majority view • Examples: military leaders and NASA launching space s
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 2120

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.