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Social psych final notes.docx

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PSYC 2120
James Check

Chapter 7 Social Influence Group – two or more people who for longer than a few moments interacts with and influences one another and perceive one another as “us” Social facilitation – (1) original meaning; the tendency of people to perform simple or well learned tasks better when others are present; (2) current meaning; the strengthening of dominant responses owing to the presence of others - Evaluation apprehension – concern for how others are evaluating us Social loafing – the tendency for people to exert less effort when they pool their efforts toward a common goal than when they are individually accountable - Additive tasks – tasks where the groups achievement depends on the sum of the individual efforts - Free ride – people who benefit from the group but give little in return Deindividuation – loss of self-awareness and evaluation apprehension; occurs in group situations that foster anonymity and draw attention away from the individual Group polarization – group-produced enhancement of members’ preexisting tendencies; a strengthening of the members’ average tendency, not a split within the group - Accentuation phenomenon – over time, initial differences among groups of university students become accentuated - Pluralistic ignorance – a false impression of how other people are thinking, feeling or responding Groupthink – “The mode of thinking that persons engage in when concurrence seeking becomes so dominant in a cohesive in-group that it tends to override realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action” - An illusion of invulnerability - Unquestioned belief in the group’s morality - Rationalization - Stereotyped view of opponent - Conformity pressure - Self-censorship - Illusion of unanimity - Mindguards Production blocking – losing one’s ideas while awaiting a turn to speak Leadership – the process by which certain group members motivate and guide the group Minority Influence - Consistency - Self-Confidence - Defection from majority Chapter 8 ALTRUISM, HELPING OTHERS Altruism – a motive to increase another’s welfare without conscious regard for one’s self-interests Social-exchange theory – the theory that human interactions are transactions that aim to maximize one’s rewards and minimize one’s costs Rewards – internal or external Egoism – a motive (supposedly underlying all behavior) to increase your own welfare. The opposite of altruism, which aims to increase someone else’s welfare Internal rewards - Guilt (Feel bad-do good) - Feel good-do good Social Norms Reciprocity norm – an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them Social-responsibility norm – an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them Kin selection – favoritism toward those who share our genes Empathy – the vicarious experience of someone else’s feeling; putting yourself in someone else’s shoes When will we help? - Number of bystanders o Noticing, Interpreting, Assuming responsibility - Time Pressures - Similarity to Victim - Bystander effect – the finding that a person is less likely to provide help when there are other bystanders Who helps? - Personality Traits - Gender (Women help more than men) Influence Helping - Reduce ambiguity, increase responsibility - Guilt and concern for self-image o Door-in-the-face – a strategy for gaining a concession. After someone first turns down a large request, the same requester counter-offers with a more reasonable request - Socializing Altruism o Moral exclusion – the perception of certain individuals or groups as outside the boundary within which you apply moral values and rules of fairness o Moral inclusion – regarding others as within your circle of moral concern o Teaching moral inclusion, modeling altru
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