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PSYC 2120 Study Guide - Final Guide: Ellipse, Classical Conditioning, Observational Learning

Course Code
PSYC 2120
Frank Marchese
Study Guide

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Study Notes: Motivation Final Exam
Chapter 5: Learned Motives: Classical, Instrumental, and Observational Learning
A. Pavlovian respondent Conditioning
B. Conditioning Phenomena: E.G Generalization, Discrimination, Spontaneous
Recovery etc.
C. Experimental Neurosis
D. Counter-conditioning, Systematic Desensitization
E. Extero-Interoceptive Conditioning
F. Operant Conditioning and Reinforcement
G. The Garcia effect and Preparedness.
In the process of classical conditioning, a formerly neutral stimulus gains the
ability to elicit a response from an organism because it has been associated with some
other stimulus that reliably (and usually automatically) elicited a response in the past.
-Pavlov was originally interested in studying the digestive process, the dog’s saliva.
He wanted to the dogs to salivate to the meat powder. He noticed that the dogs would
begin salivating even before the meat powder was brought out. He realized he was
studying an interesting phenomena, and determined to study it in detail.
Situation: A dog was put into a harness, and the salivary glands was connected so that the
amount of salivation could be measured. Then he presented meat powder and some
neutral stimulus (ringing bell) together to the dog. The meat powder of course elicited
salivation in the dog, but after a few pairings of the bell and meat powder, the bell alone
would elicit salivation. The bell because of its association with the meat powder, had
come to have similar effects on the dogs behavior.
Unconditioned Stimulus: The meat, because its effect was unlearned or automatic
Unconditioned Response: Salivation to the meat because it was the unlearned nature of
this response to the UCS.
Conditioned Stimulus: The bell, though originally neutral, it developed(by association
of the UCS) the ability to elicit a response that Pavlov called the:
Conditioned Response: The term conditioned was chosen to indicate that learning was
involved in eliciting the CR by the CS. The conditioned response is salivation also.
-The conditioned response is something new, while the unconditioned response occurs
automatically to the UCS.
Another important aspect of the classical conditioning of motivated states is that,
for all practical purposes, the organism is passive in the learning process. If conditions
are right, the learning will occur whether we want it or not. This suggests that some
maladaptive behaviours (phobias) may be learned by accidental pairings of neutral
stimuli and negative emotional or motivational states.
Experimental Neurosis: The re were 2 circles, The dog would salivate at the circle but
not at the ellipse, so they learned that the circle meant they were getting food, and NOT
the ellipse. BUT, he changed it to a 9:8 ratio, where it looked similar to the circle, making

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discrimination much more difficult. The eliciting response was now gone, the dog quit
and began moving around in the harness. He barked violently when the experimenter left
the room (probably frustrated) When tested again, on the original circle and ellipse, (2:1)
ratio, the dog could NOT discriminate. Pavlov noted that much of the behaviour of the
dog appeared similar to neurotic Behaviour seen in humans.
The experimental neurosis generated by Pavlovs discrimination experiment was
apparently the result of the increasingly difficult discrimination. It began to interfere with
Behaviour when the dog could no longer clearly discriminate. between the circle and
cylinder. The dogs reluctance to enter the discrimination room also indicated a strong
motivation to avoid the frustrating situation.
-They argued that the experimental neurosis is not generated by the classical conditioning
procedure per se but by the organisms lack of predictability or controllability. The ability
to predict and control ones environment seems to have important motivational
-Watson stated that classical conditioning can lead of development in emotion and
Ex. Albert Example
-Classically conditioned Albert to be fearful of a white rat.
-The only thing Albert was afraid of was a steal bar with a hammer behind him that
surprised him from behind. This was the only object that would reliable elicit any
emotion. The sound made by striking the bar was thus an Unconditioned Stimulus for the
emotional response (unconditioned response) of fear that Albert
-When he was 11 months that is when the experiment started, the white rat (conditioned
stimulus) was presented to Albert, just as he touched the rat the bar was struck and he
would start violently.
-After 7 pairings he would begin to cry immediately.
-It was made clear that the formerly neutral stimulus of the white rat had become an
aversive stimulus that produced both emotionality and motivated behaviour. (evidenced
by Albert’s first attempt to crawl away)
-He now cried at other white objects, the emotionality had clearly generalized to together
furry objects. Another generalization test was conducted 31 days later, and Albert still
showed withdrawal behaviour to the furry stimulus, but the reactions were much less
intense than formerly.
-But the reconditioned was poorly conducted because they reconditioned very little.
Liddel also tested sheep. He recognized that if the UCS produced an ECR then a CS
paired with the UCS would also produce an emotional response. Liddel found that
experimental neurosis developed in hi sheep when electric shock was used in leg flexion,
and the animals task was made difficult.
-Neurotic sheep displayed fast, irregular heartbeats during sleep and were very sensitive
to external stimuli of any kind. When under attack by dogs, the neurotic sheep were the
ones killed when threatened, they ran off by themselves rather than following the flock
and were thus easily attacked.

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-Liddel found that young lambs could be protected from experimental neurosis simply by
having their mothers present in the experimental room during the classical conditioning
sessions. When mom was present, the lambs showed no neurotic behaviour.
Counterconditioning: This is when the negative CS is paired with a positive UCS. In the
counterconditioning procedure, the negative CS gradually loses its aversiveness by being
paired with the positive UCS and by no longer being paired with a negative UCS. A new
positive response is generated to replace the negative one.
-Counterconditioning is generally preferred over extinction procedures because it
provides a specific positive response to replace the negative condition.
Systematic Desensitization: Wolpe developed a therapeutic technique termed systematic
desensitization that employs counter conditioning. The patient is first taught to relax
deeply on command. Once the person can relax on command, a list of anxiety-producing
situations that involve the CS is made. The list is called anxiety hierarchy. It is arranged
from least anxiety producing to most anxiety producing. The person is told to think about
least anxiety, into the worst anxiety. This continues until the individual can think about
the most anxiety arousing situation and at the same time relax. When this has been
achieved, the person is said to be “Desensitized.” Thus through a pairing of a negative CS
*some anxiety arousing thought) with a positive UCS (the command to relax) the
negative state loses its aversiveness.
Introspective Conditioning: is defined by Razran as classical conditioning in which
either the CS, UCS or both are applied directly to the internal organs or the mucosa.
-In INTER-EXTEROCEPTIVE conditioning, the CS is applied internally, while the UCS
is applied externally.
Example: a female dog had a rubber balloon, through which cool water could be
irrigated, inserted into the uterus. Paired with the CS of cool water was the presentation
of food, which of course elicited salivation as the UCR. In just 6 to 9 trials, the cool water
began eliciting salivation and became a stable response after only 25 pairings. That the
cool water was indeed the stimulus controlling the CR was shown by the fact that the dog
could learn to discriminate water temperature, salivating when cool water was irrigated
through the balloon but not salivating when warm water was irrigated.
Inter-interoceptive conditioning: Occurs when both the CS and the UCS are applied
internally. Loopes were formed in the intestines of several dogs and could then be
manually distended. Distention of the intestinal loops served as a CS, which was paired
with the delivery of Carbon dioxide (c02) to the lungs (UCS). Inhalation of CO2 leads to
changes in respiration rate, described as defensive breathing. Conditioning occurred after
only 3 to 6 pairings of intestinal distention and c02 inhalation and became stable after 5
to 16 trials. Thus, intestinal distention acquired the ability to produce defensive breathing
in dogs.
Extero-Interoceptive Conditioning: Occurs when an external CS is paired with an
internal UCS. A human participants hospitalized because of urinary complications
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