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Personality (PSYC 2130) 06-11 Lecture Notes (All Notes From Lecture Since the Midterm)

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York University
PSYC 2130
Frank Marchese

Chapter 8: Dispositional Strategy October 29, 2012 I. Characteristics of Dispositional Strategy: A search for basic qualities (traits) that identify and predict what a person will do in different situations You need at least 4-6 different traits before you can examine someone A. Definition of Disposition: An enduring, stable characteristic that disposes one to behave in a given way B. Dispositional Labels serve as organizing concepts that may help explain a person's behaviour in a variety of situations Low self monitors: pay not much attention to themselves when in certain situations (consistent, less adaptability) High self monitors: modify their trait/disposition depending on the situation (inconsistent, more adaptability) C. Disposition refers to an inner consistency that gives unity and structure to personality and helps explain behaviour II. Early Dispositional Concepts: Early emphasis on using a few number of types of personality to explain behaviour. By knowing a person's type you could also predict how one would orderly, stubborn, and stingy introvert - melancholic extrovert - sanguine choleric - impatient phlegmatic - calm and relaxed sociopath: people with a sinister side despite the fact that they have normal family/friends, job, and a seemingly normal job A. Type Theory: goes back thousands of years (ex. fearless and fearful types) B. Temperament Theory: is traced to Hippocrates and Galen 1. Underlying temperament theory is notion that physical and psychological worlds are composed of basic elements Earth, air, water, fire. These elements also make up personality are represented as humors or fluids in the body 2. 4 basic temperaments are sanguine, choleric, melancholic, and phlegmatic 3. Temperaments were gradually transformed into two major dimensions of personality. Introversion/extraversion and neuroticism 4. However, belief persisted that a particular type of person exists and this type may have certain physical characteristics III. 3 Theoretical Assumptions of Dispositional Strategy 1.A. Dispositions are stable and enduring and thus a person is disposed to behave in a certain way because of a given disposition. A disposition may be viewed a composed of traits which are distinguished from states that are more temporary. Spielberger says that trait and state anxiety differ (ex. trait anxiety is persistent across situations whereas state anxiety is temporary and may be brought about by stress, fatigue, a change in one's circumstance B. Disposition is a General Mode of Functioning and takes on different behavioural forms as individual matures (Lewis) 2. Consistency & Generality of Disposition affect a good deal of behaviour. One is ambitious at work, and also at play. And thus an ambitious disposition affects behaviour in general Extraversion: is a disposition since the tendency to be outgoing is consistent across situations and over the life span of the person 3. Individual Differences Explained according to this strategy. Thus, why do people differ? Because they have different dispositions, or the same dispositions which varies in strength -break- To Infer the Disposition of Aggressiveness he noted all the signs and symptoms of this disposition, and was able to distinguish the aggressive person from the non aggressive and predict who was likely to engage in criminal behaviour by adding up all instances, signs, and symptoms of aggressiveness. No single act during childhood could predict later criminal behaviour but adding up many aggressive acts could A. Most people describe themselves and others using a small number of dispositions. The total number of traits, motives, and needs are vast. Thus, a few dispositions from which all other traits are derived are the ones e use to explain why people differ B. The major task of dispositional strategy is to identify basic dispositions that describe and explain personality. Hysenck's use of introversion/extraversion and neuroticism are two basic dimensions of personality which attempts this. These two dimensions help explain and predict people's behaviour and help distinguish one person from another IV. Measure of Dispositions: Interviews, projective, situational tests. All measures do not measure disposition directly since a dispositions is a theoretical construct and test results are indicators of underlying disposition. A test must be reliable and have convergent and discriminant validity Gordon Allport on p. 194-198 1. Costa & McCrae's Five Factor Model (FFM): A. Extracted five primary factors through factor analysis, searching for the basic or super traits that underlie personality neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness (NEOAC or OCEAN) B. The same five factors emerge in other cultures, lending universality to these primary dimensions of personality C. The "big five" appear in children and adolescents D. Personality inventories called NEO (p. 212) are designed for normal population as a way of assessing the five factors model (FFM) E. Longitudinal study of women & men showed that same five factors emerged and thus are stable over time F. Same five factors emerged cross-culturally. Six cultures displayed the same five factors: Germany, Portugal, Israel, China, Korea (p. 214) II. Eysenck's PEN Model & Five Factor Model: Two scales (neuroticism and extraversion) overlap with NEO-PI developed by Costa and McCrae A. PEN stands for Psychoticism, Extraversion, Neuroticism 1. Psychosicism: is a combination of low C (meaning lacks consistency), and low A (meaning lacks in agreeableness & being antagonistic) 2. FFM & PEN Models & Personality Disorder: Underlying assumption is that mental disorders represent extremes of basic dimensions of personality. Personality disorders are defined as traits that are inflexible and maladaptive and cause either significant functional impairment or subjective distress November 5, 2012 PSYC 2130 continued directly from last class (p. 208) Personality disorders are defied as traits that are inflexible and maladaptive and cause either significant functional impairment or subjective distress 1. Personality Disorders & Clinical Disorders Differ according to the DSM. Personality disorders form three different clusters. Disorders of thinking, disorders of emotion and disorders of anxiety (p.217) Clinical disorders are depression, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse 2. Profiles of OCEAN and personality - clinical disorders a. Substance Abuse: High N, Low E, High O, Low A, Low C b. Anxiety Disorders: High N, Low E, High O, Low A, Low C c. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: High N, Low E, Low A, Low C d. Major Depression: High N, Low E, High O, Low C 3. Thus, a triad of High N, Low E, Low C suggest that an individual is at risk for clinical disorder. High O is found to be associated with substance abuse, major depression, and anxiety disorder. Further High O is related to sensation seeking and altered states of consciousness that may be characteristics of substance abuse 4. Major depression is associated with High N and Low E 5. Other associations between personality disorders and problem behaviours reveal OCD is associated with High C. Hallucinogenic use is associated with High N and High O. Bulimia is associated with High N Alcoholics were high in N and High O 6. Studies of delinquents reveal: delinquents who externalized problems were Low A and Low C & Low E. Boys internalizing problems were associated with High N and Low E (see p.219) Chapter 9: The Biological Approach to Personality 1. Hippocrates' Body Humors (liquids) to Modern Neurochemistry: the search for the physical basis of personality has had a long history A. Hippocrates believed that four basic temperaments characterized human personality: - melancholic (or depressed) - sanguine (or lively) - phlegmatic (or passive) - choleric (or irritable) The concentration of "humors" in the body brought about one or the other types B. Modern neurochemistry agrees that hormones (humors) and neurotransmitters are the equivalent to Hippocrates' early speculations on the relationship between physical functioning and temperament C. Freud agreed that the physical basis of personality existed in the form of biological instincts and drives. The preeminent drive for Freud was libido or sex drive, part of the survival instincts of every human. D. Kretchmer, a 19th century psychiatrist, had taken note of a relationship between physique and mental disorder and set out to discover the type of physique and its corresponding psychiatric diagnosis (or mental illness). He identified that schizophrenia was related to a lean physical type that he called "asthenic" On the other hand, manic-depressive tendencies were related to a stocky or "pykic" body constitution. And finally the "athletic" type that could also show schizophrenic tendencies. -break- get midterm mark at 141BSB or 041BSB The endomorph is passive and sociable The mesomorph is impulsive, assertive, and sociable The ectomorph is shy, inhibited, and fearful (see p.229) -Glueck and Glueck (1950s) found a relationship between Sheldon's body types and deliquency F. Darwin and the Theory of Evolution: the gradual change or evolution of advantageous (adaptive) characteristics is at the heart of Darwin's notion of natural selection. Organisms that possess adaptive characteristics are likely to survive and pass these on to their offspring - those who possess these characteristics in environments which select for these features are more successful at the game of survival in that environment - selection pressures are brought about by the environment as well as by members of one's own species - characteristics desired by female members of a species act as a selection pressure on the males Those males that possess that feature (trait) are more likely to attract a female and have their genes passed along into the next generation 1. Evolution of physical characteristics: The development of the nervous systems - - The central nervous system (CNS), consists of the brain, and spinal cord nerves - The peripheral nervous system (PNS), is comprised of nerves outside the brain and spinal cord, and is also composed of the somatic nervous system: conveys information from the sense organs to the brain and from the brain to the muscles and glands - The autonomic nervous system is composed of two divisions that operate in oppositions to one another: i. The sympathetic nervous system that is activated under "fight or flight" an arousal system, and ii The parasympathetic nervous system that operates to restore calm and stability 2. The nervous system (NS) is composed of glial cells that provide support, structure, and insulation, and neurons, which communicate information in and out of the NS - Neurons contain neurotransmitters that are released at the synapse. These transmitters are important for mood, energy, and action - Neurotransmitters can either excite or inhibit receiving neurons, as can hormones which are chemical messengers in that they are released by glands and circulate through the blood system and excite or inhibit neurons -For example, the pituitary gland located at the base of the brain works in conjunction with the hypothalamus to release hormones that stimulate the gonads or sex gland to release androgens (testosterone), a male sex hormone, and estrogen, female sex hormones. Naturally, the sex hormones play a role in reproduction and sexual behaviour (p. 233 for dendrites, axons) (p.237 for young man syndrome) 3. Young Male Syndrome: Human males are most aggressive with one another when they are competing for the attention of the opposite sex - A correlation exists between violent aggressiveness and age, such that most acts of homicide by males occur during the age period when competition for mates is most fierce -- that is, early twenties - Testosterone in males has been linked to aggressive behaviour a. Aggression: although aggression is universal and occurs among both males and females Males engage in more direct aggression, and females equally aggressive, but engage in more indirect expressions (verbal) Testosterone has been linked to aggression in males. Levels are higher from mid- teens to early twenties when aggression among males is high There seems to be a positive correlation between testosterone levels and a variety of aggressive and anti-social behaviours (p. 255) b. On the other hand, serotonin may inhibit aggression and people who are aggressive have low serotonin levels Spoont (1992) hypothesized that in countries where tryptophan is lowest in the diet, the homicide rate is high. Tryptophan is a precursor of serotonin. Thus, reduced activity of serotonin may cause a disinhibition effect leading to destructive and aggressive impulses c. Brain regions such as the amygdala in the limbic (emotion) system (CNS) when stimulated produce rage and aggression. Diseases which attack the temporal lobes (such as in rabies) where the amygdala is located may lead to violent outbursts Suppression of the temporal lobes through drugs or surgery suppresses violent behaviour II. Biology and Personality: earliest observable differences in personality are related to inherited temperament styles - Temperaments appear early in life and remain relatively consistent across the life span - Temperament is the raw material out of which personality evolves A. Sociability: styles of relating to the social environment Infants may be described as: - "difficult" - actively withdraw rather than approach people - "easy" - actively approach people - "slow to warm up" - initially fearful and gradually overcome this and approach people (Remember: Bowlby and Ainsworth attachment styles: secure, ambivalent, avoidant, disorganized) 1. Consistency of sociability styles is longitudinal studies starting in infancy and processing through childhood, adolescence, and adulthood November 19, 2012 PSYC 2130 Exam date and location: December 7, 2012 @Rexall Centre 7PM Note: Chapters 11 and 12 have overlap Chapter 11: Environmental Strategy & Behaviour Theories I. Common themes of theories within the Environmental Strategy: A. External environment influences personality B. Personality is defined as the sum total of behaviours displayed C. Behaviours (personality) arises as a response to external conditions D. Emphasize overt (external) events that give rise to overt behaviours E. Emphasis on studying the relationship between events (S - stimulus), behaviours (R- response), and their consequences F. Behaviour is situation specific and varies as a function of the changing contexts G. Situational cues indicate which behaviours are expected, which will meet with approval, and which are adaptive H. Behaviour is consistent in same or similar situations but varies as situations change II. Research and Theory Characteristics of the Environment Strategy A. Research emphasizes the use of controlled situations as in experimentation - Emphasizes systematic study of behaviour under controlled conditions, as in experiments - Dependent variables are samples of behaviour (ex. aggression - direct or indirect) - Independent variables are casual variables manipulated to have an effect on behaviour B. Theory is: 1. Parsimonious in explanation: use few principles to explain behavioural phenomena ex. forgetting is unexpressed behaviour due to absence of cues for recall ex. I'm not stealing this, I'm borrowing it without permission 2. Minimal use of constructs: avoid explanations that involve speculation about processes inside the organism, such as id, ego, superego 3. Minimize inferences: observe behaviour, note conditions under which it occurs, note consequences of behaviour. Need not infer an Oedipus complex to account for child seeking mother rather than father. Mother is a cue that stimulates behaviour that usually leads to reward. Father is sought out in other circumstances where an association between seeking father and reward has been established III. Alternate Strategies: in contrast, - Psychoanalytic theories focus on drives (internal forces) that produce personality - Drives are inferred theoretical constructs - Dispositional theories focus on intrinsic characteristics (traits) that determine personality - Traits are inferred theoretical constructs - Representational (cognitive) theories focus on private events (mental representations - ex. object - Mental representations (or schemas) are inferred theoretical constructs - Environmental theories (behaviour theories) focus on events in the environment and past learning history as determinants of personality (behaviour) See example of "outspoken" student on p. 295-296 IV. Philosophy of Environmental Strategy: Watson (1920s-30s) championed psychology as a "purely objective branch of natural science" A. Radical behaviourist who advocated the study of overt events - stimuli (S) and responses (R) - and a methodologist who believed in direct observation of overt behaviour, objectivity, precise definitions, and controlled experimentation B. Tough-minded empiricist who chose rigorous scientific methods in the study of behaviour C. Believed that in a "system of psychology completely worked out, given the responses the stimuli can be predicted; given the stimuli the responses can be predicted" V. Key to Personality is Learning: Acquire behaviour (personality) via at least three different learning processes (p. 295-296) - Classical conditioning - Operant conditioning - Social learning (modeling) processes A. Classical Conditioning: "outspoken student" Pairing of speaking with good feelings that follow, Thus, behaviour and stimuli are paired and the occurrence of other stimuli call out the behaviour and the good feelings that follow - Association of stimuli and stimuli and behaviour is crucial B. Operant Conditioning: Speaking followed by teacher reinforcement and this increases likelihood of speaking again Pairing behaviour with satisfying consequences - Association of behaviour and the consequence -- reinforcement -- is crucial C. Social Learning: Observing other students speaking and noting what follows their behaviour -- reinforcement Thus, student models others and expects that he will receive what others received following appropriate imitated behaviour -- speaking out Modeling involves vicarious learning (observing others) and vicarious reinforcement (observer affected by reward the model receives) each of us have a weltanschaung "world view" Chapter 12: The Behaviou
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