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PSYC2130 - Personality Test1 Notes

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PSYC 2130
Krista Phillips

PSYC2130 - Personality Ben Kim Personality Test Notes Wolpe Principal of Unconscious Motivation: All behavior are determined or caused by a preceding mental event. based on the observation that certain mental events are more available to us. Material which is no accessible to us (unconscious) also has a very powerful influence on behavior. Unconscious material has the most powerful on our behavior. Mental event Overt (Observable) Covert (unobservable directly) For the scientific study of personality, four types of data are available: S, I, L, and B S-Data (Self Judgment) o Comprises a persons assessments of his or her own personality. o Advantages: each individual has is the best expert about him or herself and that it is easy and simple to gather. o Disadvantages: Sometimes people will or cannot tell researchers about themselves, and that S data may be so easy to obtain that psychologists may rely on them too much. I-Data (Informant) o Compromises the judgments of knowledgeable acquaintances about the personality traits of the person being studied o Advantages: large amounts of information that are acquired are real life experiences/stories, the informants can use common sense, and the judgments of people who know the person are important because they affect reputation, opportunities, and expectancies o Disadvantage: No informant knows everything about another person, that informants judgments can be biased or subject to error such as forgetting, and that not all informants may have common sense L-Data (Life) o Compromises observable life outcomes such as being arrested, getting sick, everyday life routines, or graduating from college. L-data is verifiable, concrete, real-life outcomes that may hold psychological significance. o Advantages: Can be intrinsically important and potentially psychologically relevant, almost always accurate, and are not prone to the potential biases of self-report or the judgments of others e.g. dental records or criminal records. In o Disadvantages: May not always be psychological relevant and may be difficult to access (concerning privacy) B-Data (Behavioral) PSYC2130 - Personality Ben Kim o Compromises direct observations of a person doing something in a testing situation. E.g. Rorschach inkblot test, physiological measurement of blood pressure, heart rate, brain activity, etc. o Advantages: Has the potential to tap into many different kinds of behaviors, including those that might not occur or be easily measured in normal life, and that B data are obtained through direct observation, and so are in that sense objective. o Disadvantage: B data is that for all their superficial objectivity, it is still not always clear what they mean psychologically Psychoanalysis Overdeterminism: There are usually a whole series of pathogenic ideas that are associated with the symptoms of pathology Resistance: Freud saw that patients show resistance to therapeutic help/free association. 4 ideas: Psychic Determinism, Internal Structure, Psychic Conflict, Mental Energy Psychic Determinism One of the most fundamental approaches to psychoanalysis The idea that everything happens has a cause that in principal, maybe not always in practice can be identified. Anything anyone does has a reason/cause behind it No room for miracles, free will, or random accidents. Psychoanalytic theory sees the mind as being divided into 3 separate parts: Id, Ego, Superego. o Id: functions in the irrational and emotional part of the mind. The Id is the primitive mind. It contains all the basic needs and feelings. It is the source for libido (psychic energy). The Pleasure Principal I want it and I want it all now o Ego: functions with the rational part of the mind. The Ego develops out of growing awareness that you cant always get what you want. Reality Principal - the Ego realizes the need for compromise and negotiates between the Id and the Superego. The Ego's job is to get the Id's pleasures but to be reasonable and bear the long-term consequences in mind. o Superego: The Superego is the last part of the mind to develop. It might be called the moral part of the mind. The Superego becomes an embodiment of parental and societal values. It stores and enforces rules. It constantly strives for perfection, even though this perfection ideal may be quite far from reality or possibility. Its power to enforce rules comes from its ability to create anxiety. Psychic Conflict: whenever a decision is made and there is conflict between the id, ego, or superegoPSYC2130 - Personality Ben Kim Compromise Formation: when the ego tries to find common ground between the competing demands of motivation, morality and practicality, and also among the many things a person wants at the same time Psychoanalysis, Life, and Death (Psychoanalytic Theory) Motives: a life drive, or libido and a drive toward death and destruction The Libido o Libido: The Life Drive which is also referred to as the Sexual Drive o Freud views this force as having to do with creational protection, and enjoyment of life and with creativity, productivity, and growth Thanatos (Greek for death): a fundamental motive towards death o It does not mean that everyone has a death wish but rather that this is the opposite duality of nature, or the idea that everything contains an opposite o Freud observed that not only do people engage in destructive activity (war) but also that everyone dies. o Doctrine of Opposites: states that everything implies and even requires its opposite- life requires death, happiness requires sadness, etc. Psychological Development The story of how life energy, libido, becomes invested and then redirected over an individuals early years. 4 stages: Oral, Anal, Phallic, Genital o Each stage has 3 aspects: physical focus, psychological theme, and character type Fixation: when the battle between two stages is not completely won and libidinal energy must be left behind at that point. The adult will continu
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