Study Guides (238,399)
Canada (115,129)
York University (9,811)
Psychology (1,150)
PSYC 2210 (5)
. (1)

The Psychology of Learning and Behaviour Final Exam Review.docx

11 Pages
Unlock Document

York University
PSYC 2210

The Psychology of Learning and Behaviour Final Exam Review Chapter 8 Avoidance and Punishment Summary Negative reinforcement is when a behaviour increases in frequency if some stimulus is removed after the behaviour occurs It is a behaviour strengthening procedure in which an aversive stimulus is removed or omitted if the behaviour occursPunishment in which behaviour is followed by an unpleasant stimulus A behaviour reduction process in which the occurrence of behaviour is followed by an aversive stimulusAvoidance is when a response prevents an unpleasant stimulus from occurring in the first placeNegative punishment in which a pleasant stimulus is removed or omitted if behaviour occursOmission is often used instead of negative punishmentAvoidance punishment is a type of negative reinforcement in which performing a response prevents an aversive stimulus from occurring in the first placeAvoidance paradox is the puzzle about how the nonoccurrence of an aversive event can serve as a reinforcer for an avoidance responseA shuttle box is an experimental chamber with 2 rectangular compartments An animal may be required to move from one compartment to the other to escape or avoid an aversive stimulusThe 2 factors in the twofactor theory are classical conditioning and operant conditioning and according to the theory both are necessary for avoidance responses to occurOne problem with the twofactor theory concerns the relationship between fear and avoidance responsesOnefactor theory states that the classical conditioning component of twofactor theory is not necessary There is no need to assume that escape from a fear eliciting conditioned stimulus is the reinforcer for an avoidance response because avoidance can in itself serve as a reinforcerFreeoperant avoidance is a procedure developed by Sidman it is an avoidance procedure in which shocks occur at regular intervals if the subject does not respond but a response postpones the next shock for a fixed period of timeTwo important expectations in an avoidance situation is an expectation about the consequences of a response and an expectation about the consequences of not respondingCognitive theory of avoidance suggests that a subjects behaviour will change in an avoidance task whenever there is a discrepancy between expectancy and observationResponse blocking involves presenting the signal that precedes shock but preventing the subject from making the avoidance responseSpeciesspecific defence reactions are innate behaviour patterns a defensive reaction that occurs when an animal encounters any kind of new or sudden stimulus in the wild SSDRs usually fall into 3 categories which are freezing fleeing or fightingLearned helplessness is Seligmans term for impaired ability to learn an avoidance response that occurs after a subject has been exposed to inescapable aversive stimuli The 3 dimensions of learned helplessness are 1 the sense of helplessness may be specific to one situation or fairly global 2 The person may attribute hisher helplessness to internal or external factors and 3 the person may view this helplessness as stable long term or unstable short termPunishment has the opposite effect on behaviour as positive reinforcement reinforcement produces an increase of behaviour and punishment produces a decrease in behaviourFactors influencing the effectiveness of punishment are manner of introduction immediacy of punishment schedule of punishment motivation to respond availability of alternative behaviour and punishment as a discriminative stimulusBehaviour decelerators refer to all techniques that can lead to a slowing reduction or elimination of unwanted behavioursPunishment and omission are 2 of the most obvious methods for reducing undesired behaviours but they are not the only onesOver correction involves restitution making up for the wrong doing and positive practice practicing a better behaviourExtinction of an undesired behaviour occurs because it is followed by some positive reinforcer and if it is possible to remove that reinforcer the behaviour should eventually disappear through simple extinctionResponse blocking for behaviours that are too dangerous or destructive is response blocking which is physically restraining the individual to prevent to inappropriate behaviourEscape extinction can be used when an undesired behaviour is maintained by escape from some situation the individual does not likeNoncontingent reinforcement is the delivery of free reinforcers at random timesIf it is not feasible to remove the reinforcer that is maintaining an undesired behaviour it is sometimes possible to present so much of the reinforcer that is loses its effectiveness due to stimulus satiationChapter 9 Theories and Research on Operant Conditioning SummaryOperant conditioning may be describes as learning by doingFor Thorndike the performance of the response was a necessary part of the learning processTolman produced a cognitive map which is a general understanding of the spatial layout of for example a mazeLatent learning is Tolmans term for the hidden learning that occurs or trials when no reinforcer is delivered but can only be seen in the subjects behaviour once trials with reinforcement beginThe term biofeedback encompasses any procedure designed to supply the individual with amplified feedback about some bodily processTolma claimed that rats could still learn a maze if they were carried through it because they developed a cognitive mapExperiments on latent learning have shown that reinforcement is necessary for the performance on an operant response but not for the learning of the response
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 2210

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.