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[PSYC 2230] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (12 pages long!)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2230
Professor
Frank Marchese
Study Guide
Midterm

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York
PSYC 2230
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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1
Lecture 1
January 10 , 2016
CH1: Motivation: Concepts and Measurement
SQ3R Method:
S Survey
Q - Question
3Rs - Read, Review Relate
Motivation isn’t something we can directly observe, rather we infer it
We make that inference on the basis of what we observe
We observe their behaviour (what is observable and visible) called overt
behaviour
We can create the motivation and observe the bahavior in order to measure the
creation
There is conscious motivation and there is unconscious motivation
Motives that are outside of our immediate awareness is unconscious
We arrive at unconscious motivation through psychotherapy
Unconscious motivations:
1. Dreams
2. Symptoms
3. Slips of Speech
4. Jokes
5. Body Language
Conscious Motivations:
Need for power run for president
Need for competence learn a skill
Dependency need bonds and connection with others
Need for achievement is very important
We can become aware of various motives and we are conscious of that
NEEDS COMPETE ( ex; studying for a test is more important than going out that
night)
Power might compete with dependency ( I don’t always want to be the person
others depend on)
The one that is most important is translated to actual behaviour
Once it is gratified, it gets dropped into the background, and a new need comes
into play
Figure Ground Perception
We have all of these needs
We have dominant needs
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Once that is expressed and the motive need is gratified, it goes into the
background and another need beomes more dominant and important
We seek out alternative stimulation
We also seek out the variety of stimuli
Some are really restless with repetition
Extroverts: stimulus seekers, usually like other people and are motivated by a
strong stimulation seeking motive
Introverts: not externally oriented in their search for stimulation.
- In the brain stem there’s a structure called the RAS: reticular activating system
It is a network of neurons: provides input/stimulation to the upper brain
(cortex)
But there are individual differences in RAS stimulation
The extrovert is trying to compensate for the lack of stipulation in the
cortext
The introvert has too much stimulation it will create stress and anxiety
RAS is a key structure in the brain stem, it influences the cortex
(stimulates it)
Introvert uses internal sources of stimulation rather than external
Strong habits are reinforced.
- We tend to regress to old habits when new habits fail us
Unbalanced equilibrium need (biological disturbance) drive (psychological state
that provides motivation to satisfy need). behaviour that satisfies need and
reduces drive equilibrium restored
What drives the repetition compulsion?
1. Concept of Motivation (M) : forces acting on or within an organism to initiate action
(p4)
- Motivated behaviour (B) displays intensity and persistence
- Internal srouces = minimal, external srouce = maximal
- Motivation refers to forces (external and internal that initiate action)
- Intensity: how high or low is the motivation can be very mild or very
extreme
2. Measurement of M: not measured directly; manipulate stimulus (S) condition and
observe behavioural response (r) (see p5)
a. S is deprivation and speed of runnin in a maze is R
- Deprivation can be mild or severe
- We can deprive an organism from food (S), what is the response (R)?
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