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York University
PSYC 2230
Frank Marchese

LECTURE 12 tests tho Midterm testTuesday May 29 o Final examTBD during exam periodo MC and short answers with choices o Chapter 5 photocopy from a separate sourceo Not cumulative o 7080 MC 1012 points matching 57 short answers with a choiceGrasp theoriesconcepts not experimentalWont be tested on namesdatesEmotion and motivation are synonymouso When youre motivational youre arousedSQ3R Method o Ssurvey o Qquestions o R1read o R2recite o R3review PhilosophicalPsychological Theories of MotivationSynonymsdrive goal motivation incentives urge active desire fear motives survival rewards Karl Yungword associationso First thing that comes into mind when presented with the with motivationo Said something that is more conventional socially desirableo Not a typical association to the word motivation selfishness o That association is particular to you and your experienceMotivation in the standpoint of desireo Desire something some object some goal Desire is the essence of man Spinoza 16321677 o We act to achievefulfill our desire o Desiremotivational o Pursue those goals in activity that fulfill our desire o Philosophical attitude in regards to motivationMan will risk his biological life to satisfy his nonbiological desire Hegel 17701831 o Nonbiological desirepsychology of person ex psychological survival o Biological lifephysical aspects of person ex survivalNothing great in the world has ever been accomplished without passion Hegel You cant always get what you wantbut if you try sometimes you might find you get what you need Rolling Stones Mick Jagger and Keith Richards 1969 o If you fulfill your basic needs but you might not fulfill your basic wantsPassion is what gives our lives meaning Once you have experienced it all else is irrelevant sign outside of lingerie shopIn the Phaedrus Plato 428348 BC likens reason to a charioteer who tries to control passion Reason and passion are in continual conflict o We have mindheart we have reasonpassion not necessarily compatible o Reason tries to control passion o Noted by Freudtheres always tension between reason and passion o Id aspect of personality passion desire drive and ego aspect of personality cognition knowing understanding reason For Freud 18561939 the Id component of personality among other things representing passion is usually in conflict with Ego representing reason and the superego representing conscienceo This is what I want to need vs this is what I need to do vs this is what I should doo Superegosocial prohibitions that we internalized I know its rightwrong what I should doCan issue irrational demands o Idenergy sources of personalityo Egomediator of demands of Id and SuperegoExperiences stress and have psychological defenses to managecope this conflicto 1 table with hamster needed to pat down from escaping duty 1 table with toyscandies pleasureSource conscience of the childo Always a conflict between duty and pleasureo Stands on duty must resistrepress its Id passion for toys o Weak superego conscience indulgesmotivated to the pleasureo Gender differences girls stand at the post boys get restless at age 45 Very likely to do with socialization with regards to dutypleasureFor Maslow 19081970 we have a hierarchy of needs and thus are not motivated exclusively by physical requirements ex need for food water etc but as well we are motivated by higher level motives such as selfactualization the need to fulfill or realize our full potentialo Sourcetextbook p 349 o Needs are organized from lower to higher level of needs physicalpsychological o We are drivenactively pursuing survival needs psychological needs psychosocial needs o Ex Harry Harlows monkey social needs are as important as physical needsMan does not live by bread alone ancient biblical source Passionefforts o Cathexisattaching emotionsaffects to a memoryvisualimage energy is invested investment of emotional significance in an activity object or ideao Can withdraw it and invest it in something else o We invest time in a personPredators the disturbing world of the psychopaths among us o Thomas Hoppes we all have selfishness so we form social contracts to helpmanipulate each otherLECTURE 2 Chapter 1 MotivationWhat is it 1 Motivation is a concept it is used to describe a Forces that initiate and direct behaviour b To explain differences in intensity of behaviour more intense the B the behaviour the more motivationi The person behaving intensely they are probably motivatedii Motivation might be fear or the motivation might be approaching the goaliii Intensity varies so motivation variesc To understand direction of behaviour i Behaviour is goal directed not randomendlessd To explain why behaviour occurs in one situation and not in others i Motivation varies in different situationse Increases ability to predict behaviouri Observe the behaviour then Infer the underlying motive ii Ex we see person eating infer the person is hungry2 Measure of motivation never measure directly but inferred on basis of what organism does following some manipulation a Manipulate some stimulus condition and observe resulting behaviour p 17 i Stimulus withhold foodresponse speed of running ii Deprivation increases increases the need increases drivemotivation organism will run fast iii If go beyond a point in deprivation organism is too weak prediction isnt fulfillediv StimulusIV response intervening variableresponse v Hunger deprivationhunger motivationfaster runvi Intervening variable is inferred on the basis of what we do in S and what we observe in R1 hypothetical internal state used to explain relationships between observed variables vii Moderator variablethe higher the reading level the higher the performance 1 Moderators influencing the performance correlation isnt causal2 Qualitative eg sex race class or quantitative eg level of reward variable that affects the direction andor strength of the relation between X and Yb Deprive organism of food and observe foodgetting behaviour c Measure hours without food stimulus deprivation and measure speed of running response from start box to goal box in a maze
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