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Course Code
PSYC 2230
Frank Marchese
Study Guide

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- 2 tests
o Midterm test = Tuesday May 29th
o Final exam = TBD during exam period
o MC and short answers (with choices)
o Chapter 5 (photocopy from a separate source)
o Not cumulative
o 70-80 MC, 10-12 points matching, 5-7 short answers (with a choice)
- Grasp theories/concepts, not experimental
- Won’t be tested on names/dates
- Emotion and motivation are synonymous
o When you’re motivational, you’re aroused
- SQ3R Method
o S = survey
o Q = questions
o R1 = read
o R2 = recite
o R3 = review
Philosophical / Psychological Theories of Motivation
- Synonyms = drive, goal, motivation, incentives, urge, active, desire, fear motives, survival, rewards
- Karl Yung = word associations
o First thing that comes into mind when presented with the with “motivation”
o Said something that is more conventional, socially desirable
o Not a typical association to the word motivation (selfishness)
o That association is particular to you and your experience
- Motivation in the standpoint of “desire
o Desire something, some object, some goal
- Desire is the essence of man (Spinoza, 1632-1677)
o We act to achieve/fulfill our desire
o Desire = motivational
o Pursue those goals in activity that fulfill our desire
o Philosophical attitude in regards to motivation
- Man will risk his biological life to satisfy his non-biological desire (Hegel, 1770-1831)
o Non-biological desire = psychology of person (ex: psychological survival)
o Biological life = physical aspects of person (ex: survival)
- Nothing great in the world has ever been accomplished without passion (Hegel)
- You can’t always get what you want/but if you try sometimes you might find you get what you need
(Rolling Stones, Mick Jagger and Keith Richards, 1969)

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o If you fulfill your basic needs, but you might not fulfill your basic wants
- Passion is what gives our lives meaning. Once you have experienced it, all else is irrelevant (sign outside
of lingerie shop)
- In the Phaedrus, Plato (428-348 BC) likens reason to a charioteer who tries to control passion. Reason
and passion are in continual conflict
o We have mind/heart, we have reason/passion (not necessarily compatible)
o Reason tries to control passion
o Noted by Freud there’s always tension between reason and passion
o Id aspect of personality (passion, desire, drive) and ego aspect of personality (cognition,
knowing, understanding, reason)
- For Freud (1856-1939), the Id component of personality, among other things representing passion, is
usually in conflict with Ego, representing reason, and the superego, representing conscience
o This is what I want to need vs this is what I need to do vs this is what I should do
o Superego = social prohibitions that we internalized (I know its right/wrong, what I should do)
Can issue irrational demands
o Id = energy sources of personality
o Ego = mediator of demands of Id and Superego
Experiences stress and have psychological defenses to manage/cope this conflict
o 1 table with hamster needed to pat down from escaping (duty) 1 table with toys/candies
Source: conscience of the child
o Always a conflict between duty and pleasure
o Stands on duty, must resist/repress its Id (passion for toys)
o Weak superego (conscience) indulges/motivated to the pleasure
o Gender differences: girls stand at the post, boys get restless (at age 4-5)
Very likely to do with socialization with regards to duty/pleasure
- For Maslow (1908-1970), we have a hierarchy of needs, and thus are not motivated exclusively by
physical requirements (ex: need for food, water, etc.) but as well, we are motivated by higher level
motives, such as self-actualization, the need to fulfill or realize our full potential
o Source = textbook p. 349
o Needs are organized from lower to higher level of needs (physical psychological)
o We are driven/actively pursuing survival needs, psychological needs, psychosocial needs
o Ex: Harry Harlow’s monkey (social needs are as important as physical needs)
- Man does not live by bread alone (ancient biblical source)
- Passion = efforts
o Cathexis = attaching emotions/affects to a memory/visual/image, energy is invested (investment
of emotional significance in an activity, object, or idea)
o Can withdraw it and invest it in something else
o We invest time in a person
- Predators: the disturbing world of the psychopaths among us
o Thomas Hoppes: we all have selfishness so we form social contracts to help/manipulate each

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Chapter 1: Motivation What is it?
1. Motivation is a concept: it is used to describe
a. Forces that initiate and direct behaviour
b. To explain differences in intensity of behaviour (more intense the B (the behaviour) the more
i. The person behaving intensely, they are probably motivated
ii. Motivation might be fear, or the motivation might be approaching the goal
iii. Intensity varies, so motivation varies
c. To understand direction of behaviour
i. Behaviour is goal directed, not random/endless
d. To explain why behaviour occurs in one situation and not in others
i. Motivation varies in different situations
e. Increases ability to predict behaviour
i. Observe the behaviour, then Infer the underlying motive
ii. Ex: we see person eating, infer the person is hungry
2. Measure of motivation: never measure directly but inferred on basis of what organism does following
some manipulation
a. Manipulate some stimulus condition and observe resulting behaviour (p. 17)
i. Stimulus (withhold food) response (speed of running)
ii. Deprivation increases, increases the need, increases drive/motivation, organism will run
iii. If go beyond a point in deprivation, organism is too weak (prediction isn’t fulfilled)
iv. Stimulus IV response (intervening variable) response
v. Hunger deprivation hunger motivation faster run
vi. Intervening variable is inferred on the basis of what we do in S and what we observe in R
1. hypothetical internal state used to explain relationships between observed
vii. Moderator variable = the higher the reading level, the higher the performance
1. Moderators influencing the performance (correlation isn’t causal)
2. Qualitative (e.g., sex, race, class) or quantitative (e.g., level of reward) variable
that affects the direction and/or strength of the relation between X and Y
b. Deprive organism of food and observe food-getting behaviour
c. Measure hours without food (stimulus deprivation) and measure speed of running (response)
from start box to goal box in a maze
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