PSY 2230 MID-TERM EXAM
A. Chapter 1: Conceptualizing Motivation, e.g. Persistence.
Measurement, e.g. Intervening and Performance Variables.
Characteristics, e.g. Activation; Categories of Analysis,
e.g. Nomothetic vs Idiographic. Levels of Analysis, e.g. Physio-
logical. Constructs, e.g. Energy; Philosophical Antecdents, e.g.
Descartes, Locke. Evolution & Motivation, Reproduction & Metabolism.
B. Chapters 1 & 2: Genetic Contributions to Motivation
A. Natural Selection. B. Sexual Selection. C. Parental Investment
Model. D. Instinct Theory. E. Ethological Theory and Key
Concepts. F. Imprinting and Critical Periods. G. Human Ethology.
C. Theories of Emotion (pages 356-363): James-Lange Theory;
emphasizes the role of autonomic nervous systems (ANS) and
bodily sensations that give rise to “arousal” and that lead to felt
Cannon-Bard Theory: emphasizes the role of the central
nervous system: the cortex and thalamus as well as the hypo-
thalamus as the “seat” of emotional experience. Schachter-Singer Cognitive-Physiological Theory: emphasizes
role of physiological arousal plus and cognitive attributions that
one identifies within one’s immediate environment combining
to give rise to a particular emotional state. Arousal and cognitive labeling
are necessary for an authentic emotional experience.
Chapter 3: Arousal Theory: States that arousal may vary
from low to high and this activates behavior and organism is motivated.
Brain Structures such as the RAS; reticular activating
system responsible for arousal and activation. EEG records of brain
waves give evidence of arousal level; Alpha awake and calm and
Beta awake and active.
Sleep & Motivation reveal 5 stages of sleep; from
Non-Rem Sleep to Rem-Sleep where rapid eye movement and
dreaming take place. Dream deprivation studies reveal disruptive
effects if dreaming is disturbed by being awakened over a period
Stress and GAS: Stress is the generalized response of the
body to any demand, physical or psychological. The GAS or the
General Adaptation Syndrome is a three stage reaction of the
body to demands or stressors: Alarm, Resistance, Exhaustion. The relationship betw