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PSYC 2230 (45)


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PSYC 2230
Frank Marchese

1. PSY 2230 MID-TERM EXAM STUDY GUIDE* A. Chapter 1: Conceptualizing Motivation, e.g. Persistence. Measurement, e.g. Intervening and Performance Variables. Characteristics, e.g. Activation; Categories of Analysis, e.g. Nomothetic vs Idiographic. Levels of Analysis, e.g. Physio- logical. Constructs, e.g. Energy; Philosophical Antecdents, e.g. Descartes, Locke. Evolution & Motivation, Reproduction & Metabolism. B. Chapters 1 & 2: Genetic Contributions to Motivation A. Natural Selection. B. Sexual Selection. C. Parental Investment Model. D. Instinct Theory. E. Ethological Theory and Key Concepts. F. Imprinting and Critical Periods. G. Human Ethology. C. Theories of Emotion (pages 356-363): James-Lange Theory; emphasizes the role of autonomic nervous systems (ANS) and bodily sensations that give rise to “arousal” and that lead to felt emotional experience. Cannon-Bard Theory: emphasizes the role of the central nervous system: the cortex and thalamus as well as the hypo- thalamus as the “seat” of emotional experience. Schachter-Singer Cognitive-Physiological Theory: emphasizes role of physiological arousal plus and cognitive attributions that one identifies within one’s immediate environment combining to give rise to a particular emotional state. Arousal and cognitive labeling are necessary for an authentic emotional experience. Chapter 3: Arousal Theory: States that arousal may vary from low to high and this activates behavior and organism is motivated. Brain Structures such as the RAS; reticular activating system responsible for arousal and activation. EEG records of brain waves give evidence of arousal level; Alpha awake and calm and Beta awake and active. Sleep & Motivation reveal 5 stages of sleep; from Non-Rem Sleep to Rem-Sleep where rapid eye movement and dreaming take place. Dream deprivation studies reveal disruptive effects if dreaming is disturbed by being awakened over a period of nights. Stress and GAS: Stress is the generalized response of the body to any demand, physical or psychological. The GAS or the General Adaptation Syndrome is a three stage reaction of the body to demands or stressors: Alarm, Resistance, Exhaustion. The relationship betw
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