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exam notes- motivation.docx

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York University
PSYC 2230
Frank Marchese

Chapter 5: Drive Theory Drive – Idea that forces within the individual to activate behaviour Trieb- “moving force” - It was later translated into instinct. Freuds Moving force: First one to use concept of energy Psychic Energy: never defined a) Likened to stimulation or excitation of the nervous system b) Likened to the hydraulic system of storage and flow of energy Freud believed psychic energy accumulates in the ID Psychic energy builds up when some NEED exists Concept of need: - Connecting moving force to changes in bodily functions - We satisfy a need by channeling psychic energy into behaviors, for example; eating when hungry- which will reduce the need Another example: When body needs food, psychic energy builds up for “food getting” Principal of constancy: Nervous system functions to eliminate or reduce stimuli Reduction of stimuli= pleasurable Increase of stimuli= not very pleasurable Moving force possesses four characteristics (in order) Source: bodily processes activate moving force Pressure: Strength of the force Aim: Satisfaction- obtained by removing or reducing stimulation Object: Internal or external means through which force is satisfied Object may change because we find ways of satisfying moving force as we learn new things Two major classes of moving force a) Life force: powers life force eras, reproductive or sexual force b) Death force: death is not observable except for suicide Libido: reproductive force Displacement: Trauma during development Inappropriate rearing Consider displacement as a channeling of energy into behaviours not associated with a moving force Example: One’s sexual energies may get displaced into watching nude photos Freud believed the lowest level (death) be the optimal level. - The death force (thanatos) directly oppose the life force - Moving forces can undergo alterations during a life time 1 alteration= Reversal Reversal: active aspect of the forces aim is altered Masochism is an example of reversal - active aim of torture is reversed into the passive aim of being tortured although both lead to a reduction of energy thus to satisfaction 2 alteration= Turning round of force Turning round of force: change here occurs in the force’s object Reversal and turning round of force are never complete!! Other modifications of moving force include Repression and Sublimation Repression: individual resists the force to the point it becomes unrecognized We will repress moving force if activity causes more pain than pleasure Concept of repression: great deal of motivation is unconscious Criticisms of Freudian Model - criticized on several grounds - theory is weak and needs verification from research Drive SUMMARY Homeostasis: process in which bodily mechanisms attempt to keep the body at some optimal level - Drive was seen as tied to the needs of the organism - When a need state exists, behaviour is activated directly by that need without postulating an intervening process such as drive - Some needs exist that do not result in behaviour - Drives leading to activation of behaviour exist when no needs can be demonstrated - Sexual drive is the strongest - Drive is usually activated by a need but can be activated independent of need THE BASIC CHARACTERISTIC OF DRIVE IS THAT IT ENERGIZES BEHAVIOUR. Rise of Drive concept - Robert bolles noted factors which led to accept of drive - From a drive view point, feeling of huner could now be regarded as “being hungry” - Drive was believed to have a readily identifiable physiological basis - Drive concept was presented at a time when local motivation theories were being shown inadequate - Hunger result from peripheral cues such as stomach movement - Monitoring of states of the body resulted from central brain structures Richters Work - increase in activity are in fact correlated with various motivated states - evolutionary perspective as well - Increased activity would increase their chances of finding something to reduce the need Warden Columbia Obstruction Box: measure the strength of various motives such as hunger and thirst. Basic Procedure: putting animal in start compartment and observing how many times it crossed electrified grid floor in order to reach the goal - Motivation to obtain water peaks much earlier (1 day) - Water deprivation should lead to maximal motivation Inanition: weaking ; occurs sooner in water deprived than food deprived Incentive: deprivation conditions plus desirability Woodworth Three characteristics for drive: a) Intensity: drive has activating purposes -Activation of behaviour by drive can vary from low levels as in dreaming to high levels like fear -High levels are accompanied by emotion b) Direction: drive has directionality - Leading to approach or avoid behaviour is a characteristic of drive state c) Persistence: drive acts not only to channel behaviour (approach or avoid) but also to continue behaviour until difference between existing and preferred situations is reduced Hulls Drive Theory - Hulls model for behaviour was basically a survival model Approach: Motivation develops to meet the organic needs of the organism because such a system gives the animal and advantage in struggle to survive -Affected by Darwin and Cannon’s concept of homeostasis Organic needs were seen as giving rise to a drive that brings the body back into the state of balance - Affected by Thorndike’s law of effect Learning involves connected to stimuli and responses - Reinforcement occurs when drive is reduced - Reinforcement strengthens habit (learning) Hulls Reaction Potential, Habit Strength and Drive Created a formula SEr= SHr X D SEr= reaction potential SHr= Strength habit D= Drive SEr depends on SHr and D - Learning involves the connection of stimuli and responses as a result of reinforcement - Reinforced pairing of a stimulus and response was believed to increase habit strength by a small amount HULL: Reinforcement occurs when drive is reduced Lowering of the drive is known as drive reduction model. No driveNo response, No responseNo reinforcement, No reinforcement NO LEARNING Major source of difference was his generalized drive Generalized drive: general pool of energy that can activate either instinctive or learned behaviours - only one generalized drive exists to which several different motivating conditions can contribute Drive stimuli: Sd- drive is triggered and drive stimuli are felt EX: stomach contractions when hungry Drive is important for the development of behaviour in 3 ways 1) Without drive, no drive reduction can occur 2) Drive is an energizer of behaviour w/o drive behaviour will NOT occur 3) Drive stimuli that provide the directionality to behaviour depend upon existence of drive state Stronger the drive, stronger the behaviour Incentive: influence of reinforcement quantity and quality is on performance rather than learning Incentive motivation (K): characteristics of the goal object influence organisms motivation - incentive value of a goal alters behaviour in same manner as drive FORMULA BECOMES: SEr= SHr X D X K Incentives are learned classical conditioning - Reinforcement occrs when drive stimuli is reduced Hull incorporated two additional constructs: 1) Stimulus intensity dynamism (V) 2) Inhibition – 2 types a) reactive b) conditioned Problems with drive theory Sheffield indicated: neither drives nor needs must be reduced in order for reinforcement to intiate learning Drive induction: animals will learn to make responses that lead to an increase in motivation Drive as a general activator Second assumption of Hull’s was drive is a general activator of behaviour and drive stimuli provide steering mechanism for directing that activation Sexual motivation as drive Sexual tension was seen as building up in the ID. Creating an uncomfortable state by the EGO. Hypothalamus directs the anterior pituitary to secrete series of hormones called gonadotrophins FSH: follicle stimulating hormone LH: luteinizing hormone Gonads: testes in males and ovaries in females 3 major gonadal hormones- sexual behaviour androgens- male sex hormones also produced to smaller degree in women MAJOR ANDROGEN- testosterone Estrogen- female sex hormone Produced in males also 2 % M 30 % F MAJOR ESTROGEN- estradiol - If adrenal gland was removed, sexual interest will decrease dramatically Chapter 5 Pavlovian Conditioning: procedure formely neutral stimuli gain control over behaviour - pairing procedure of CS(tone) and UCS(food) - CS motivates organism to respond in a manner similar to the way it responds to UCS - CS motivates organism to respond where previous to conditioning the cs had no effect on organisms behaviour a) motivation properties of CS acquired by association (contiguity) with UCS b) neural stimuli acquire motivational and emotional properties c) association between CS and UCS- stimulus- stimulus association neural no response unconditioned UCR Pairing: NS & UCS YES RESPONSE NS alone YES CS (NS becomes CS) CR d) CS activates UCS connected to response CS UCS response UCS process mediates resultant CR Respondents= reflexes Experimental neurosis: difficult discrimination training Led to loss of previously established CRs and inability to acquire new ones Difficult conditioning tasks become aversive and lead to disruption in overall personality of animal a) neurosis is a physiological response mediated from autonomic nervous system Classical conditioning associated with acquisition of motivation states 9-11 month child could form conditioned emotional reaction to previous neutral stimuli drive has direction leading to approach and avoiding Counter conditioning: pairing aversive CS with strongly positive UCS leads to CS to elicit new positive response Aversive CS no longer aversive Negative CS paired with positive UCS (food) positive responses from UCS generalize to CS System desensitization – learning a relaxation response this positive response may be attached to stimuli previously elicited negative CR’s - Becoming accustomed to a more fearing stimuli Introceptive Conditioning: CS, UCS or both applied to internal Intero-exteroceptive conditioning: CS applied internally (cool water to stomach) and application of UCS(food) Food elicits salivation and after pairings of CS and UCS CS(water) leads to salivary response Extero Interoceptive: urinary problems have inflatable balloon inserted in bladder (UCS) If you inflate balloon sensation of urination CS is a dial with r
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