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Psyc 2230- Lecture-midterm on.docx

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PSYC 2230
Frank Marchese

Chapter 5Drive Theory and Motivational Psychology Photocopy1 Concept of Drive introduced originally by Freud and Woodworth in early 1900s and replaced concept of instinct Drive refers to an energized state arising out of need that propels organisms toward a goal that satisfies the need and reduces the driveA Drive Arises out of specific need BDrive is channeled into general increase arousal in behaviour that brings organism into contact with objects that may satisfy needp62 C Drive induces responses that reduce need and drive drive reduction theory of reinforcementD Responses that lead to drive reduction are learned modes of conduct 2 Early formulations Freud in early 1900s used drive concept trieb as a moving force as energy that arouses organism and intiates behaviour A Drive D as psychic energy that accumulates in the personality structure of the id Pressure builds and requires releaseB Psychic energy build when a need exists when bodily functions change so does the energy build upC Why this reduction in energy Energy beyond a certain point unpleasant since organism governed by principle of constancyreduce excitation in nervous system and this is pleasurable Increase in excitation is pleasurable3 Freud said moving force drive has four characteristicsAPressure is strength of force and stronger the force the more motivated B Aim of moving force is satisfactionC Object of moving force may be internal or external to individual Object may change in course of life but moving force remains the same Fixation of an object or restricted range of objects may occurDSource of moving force is the need bodily deficit from which too much excitationhunger thirst fatigue etc arisesE Freuds model NEED Psychic D energy BGoalSatisfaction through need and drive reductionF Example 1 Need for Water2Pressure Strength of need great due to 36 hours water deprivation3Aim is pleasure through need reduction4Object is water that can provide need reduction Objects provide need reduction may change throughout life and vary 4 Two classes of moving forces Life and Death Forces Life Force Psychic Energy that powers it is EROS Life force consists of reproduction sexual and life affirming functions Libido is name of sexual force Before puberty libido is separated into different stages psychosexual representing different zones of the body He called these zones Erogenous zonesZones of body At puberty and after the separate stages are fused into one Genital and libido shifts to interactions that reproduce and affirm life Yet trauma may lead to displacement of libido onto inappropriate objects and fixation at earlier immature stages of psychosexual developmentDeath Force Psychic energy that powers it is called Thanatos Here the drive is to reduce energy to zero Aggressive behaviour is an indication of death force and is a compromise between life and death forces locked in perpetual conflictChapter 5 photocopy and Chapter 5 in text are to be read Forces throughout life do not change What changes is the expression and objects of those forcesa force may be reversed that is the aim is altered from active inflicting pain sadism to passive receiving pain masochism a force may turn round the object changes from others sadism to one self masochism a force may be repressed or resisted to the point that it is not recognized as in being contained in the unconsciousthe energy of force is not gottenrid of rather it is expressed in other neurotic waysSince forces may undergo modifications of expression there is not one to one correspondence between behaviours and the motives underlying them Yet some displacements may be beneficial such as channeling forces into creative endeavours or altruistic patterns5 Criticisms of Freuds TheoryA Theory is empirically weak relies on clinical evidence and interpretationB Theory makes for a number of possible interpretations of same phenomenonC Theory cannot predict behaviourtheory explains behaviour after the fact and cannot predict it prior to the behaviour6 Drive RevisitedA Drive is motivational construct associated with concept of homeostasis When there is imbalance organism is motivated to take action to correct imbalance Drive is seen as tied to bodily needs Organic deficiency or excess motivates organism to bring body back into balance homeostasis
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