Study Guides (248,168)
Canada (121,359)
York University (10,192)
Psychology (1,203)
PSYC 2230 (45)

CHAPTER 4

8 Pages
119 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2230
Professor
Pauline Charlton
Semester
Fall

Description
CHAPTER 4: PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS o imagine you are in a study and you are told to gain 10% body weight its tough (e.g. food is less appealing, not as active anymore) but you eventually do it after 2 months o Now you are asked to lose 10% body weight you find it miserable, after a month you telephone the experimenter and say your out o a return to your normal weight coincides with the departure of your misery and midnight fantasises of pizza/cookies o your experience shows that the body has a predispositional, somewhat automated guide to how much it should weigh o the body does, indeed, feature many self-regulatory guides, and when these guides are upset, ignored, or outright rejected, motivational sates arise (e.g. hunger, misery) and will continue and intensify, until the individual acts to correct the upset regulatory guides o Thesis of Chapter: physiological needs, biological systems, motivational states, and behaviour act in concert with one another to achieve stable physiological regulations o did a similar study with animals: one group was force-fed food, other was deprived, and the last was given a normal diet o results: force-fed group gained weight, deprived lost weight, but at the end all 3 groups eventually came back to normal weight when the 3 groups were returned to a normal diet o irrespective, of whether they were force-fed or starved, the animals motivationally adapted to their condition, and these motivational states allowed them eventually to return back to their normal body weights NEED o a need is any condition within the person that is essential and necessary for life, growth, and well-being if need nurtured/satisfied well-being maintained/enhanced but neglected/frustrated damaged well-being motivational states therefore provide impetus to act before damage occurs to psychological and bodily well-being o physiological need (to avoid tissue damage and to maintain bodily resources ex. hunger) o psychological need (to orients ones development toward growth/adaptation ex. autonomy) o social needs (to preserver our identities, beliefs, values and social relationships ex. affiliation) o physiological, psychological and social needs provide a range of motives that serve the individuals overall life, growth and well-being Need Structure o Types of needs exist (look at figure 4.2): Physiological: (thirst, hunger, sex) are inherent within the workings of biological systems Psychological: (autonomy, competence, relatedness) are inherent within the strivings of human nature and healthy development Social: (achievement, intimacy, power) are internalized/learned from our emotional and socialization histories o psychological and social needs defer b/c psychological needs exists in human nature inherent to everyone, but social needs vary in people b/c they depend on the social environment in which we are raised in, live in, and attempt to create for the future self o physiological needs involve bodily systems, if unmet for an extended period of time can generate motivational states that can dominate consciousness (can be life-threatening hunger), but if gratified theyre forgotten about for a while o psychological and social needs involve central nervous system processes and are forever conscious to us, at least to a degree they gain salience in consciousness mostly in presence of environments the individual believes are capable in involving or satisfying those needs (ex. hanging out friends affiliation need salient, being bossed around autonomy need salient) o all needs generate energy, they differ in their directional effects on behaviour (ex. hunger look for food, thirsty look for water, competence need look for challenge, relatedness need look for intimate relationships) o needs also differ in that some generate deficiency motivation and others generate growth motivation, can also tell them apart by the emotions they cause deficiency: deprivation activated a need to interact with the world in a way that will quiet the deficit (no food for hours, look to consume food) cause tension/urgency emotions like anxiety, frustration, pain, stress and relief growth: motivational states energize and direct behaviour to advance development (seek out challenges, improve interpersonal relationships) generate positive emotions like interest, enjoyment, and vitality FUNDAMENTALS OF REGULATION o Clark Hull created a biologically based theory of motivation called drive theory o the model of need-drive-behaviour-sequence: 1. satiated state 2. physiological deprivation develops gradually 3. prolonged physiological deprivation produces bodily need 4. need intensifies; gives rise to psychological drive 5. goal-directed motivated behaviour occurs as attempt to gratify drive 6. consummatory behaviour occurs 7. drive is reduced (goes back to 1. satiated state, and cycle repeats) Physiological Need o describes a deficient biological condition Psychological Drive o it is the conscious manifestation of an underlying unconscious biological need when salient enough to grab the individuals attention, drive motivationally readies the individual to engage in goal-directed behaviours capable of yielding drive reduction Homeostasis o is the term used to describe the bodys tendency to maintain a stable internal state bodily systems are inevitably and continually displaced from homeostasis either by changes in environmental conditions or by ones own consummatory behaviours homeostasis is essentially the bodys ability to return a system to its basal state o the body has both a tendency to maintain a steady state as well as the means to generate the motivation necessary to energize and direct homeostasis-restoring behaviours Negative Feedback o refers to homeostasis physiological stop system o people eat and sleep, but only until they are no longer hungry or sleepy o thus, drive activates behaviour and negative feedback stops itMultiple Inputs/Outputs o drive arises from a number of different sources (input) and motivates a number of different goal-directed behaviours (outputs) drive has multiple inputs (or means of activation), ex. can feel thirsty after sweating, eating salty foods, or donating blood drive has multiple outputs (behavioural responses that satisfy drive) ex. when cold a person can put on a jacket, turn up the furnace, or engage in vigorous exercise Intraorganismic Mechanisms o include all the biological regulatory systems within the person that act in concert to activate, maintain and terminate the physiological needs that underlie drive the three main categories of intraorganismic mechanisms are brain structures, the endocrine system, and bodily organs o together, these bodily mechanisms affect one another in ways that explain the physiological events that create, maintain, and terminate the psychological experience of drive Extraogranismic Mechanisms o include all the environmental influences that play a part in activating, maintaining, and terminating psychological drive the principle categories of extra-organismic mechanisms are cognitive, environmental, social, and cultural influences The Homeostatic Mechanism: The Wisdom of the Body o book of Walter Cannon, whether the homeostatic state in the
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 2230

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit